การทบทวนวรรณกรรมเภสัชวิทยาและพิษวิทยาของส่วนประกอบในยาธาตุน้ำแดง

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ณัฐวุฒิ ลีลากนก
นภัสสร ฉันทธำรงศิริ
วรธัช ฐิติกรพงศ์

บทคัดย่อ

ยาธาตุน้ำแดงเป็นยาที่ใช้อย่างแพร่หลายสำหรับรักษาอาการในระบบทางเดินอาหาร อย่างไรก็ตามไม่มีงานศึกษารองรับประสิทธิภาพและความปลอดภัยของยาธาตุน้ำแดง การทบทวนวรรณกรรมเภสัชวิทยาและพิษวิทยาของส่วนประกอบในยาธาตุน้ำแดงจะช่วยเพิ่มข้อมูลแก่ผู้ป่วยและบุคลากรสาธารณสุขประกอบการตัดสินใจใช้ยา จากสูตรตำรับยาธาตุน้ำแดงที่ขึ้นทะเบียนในประเทศไทยซึ่งแสดงไว้ในฐานข้อมูลของสำนักงานคณะกรรมการอาหารและยาในปี 2561 พบว่า ส่วนประกอบหลักของยาธาตุน้ำแดงคือโซเดียมและไบคาร์บอเนต สำหรับส่วนประกอบสมุนไพรในตำรับยาธาตุน้ำแดงซึ่งได้รับการขึ้นทะเบียนในประเทศไทย ประกอบด้วย น้ำมันหอมระเหย แอนทราควิโนน ไกลโคไซด์ สารที่มีรสขม และสารที่มีรสเผ็ด เมื่อรับประทานยาธาตุน้ำแดงตามขนาดยาที่แนะนำ ร่างกายจะได้รับส่วนประกอบเหล่านี้ในปริมาณต่ำกว่าขนาดที่ทำให้เกิดพิษ อย่างไรก็ตาม ปริมาณโซเดียมในยาธาตุน้ำแดงอาจมากเกินไปสำหรับผู้ป่วยที่ต้องจำกัดโซเดียม อีกทั้งยังมีข้อมูลการใช้ยาธาตุน้ำแดงในสตรีมีครรภ์และให้นมบุตรไม่เพียงพอ จึงไม่ควรใช้ยาธาตุน้ำแดงในผู้ป่วยที่ต้องจำกัดปริมาณโซเดียม สตรีมีครรภ์และให้นมบุตร และยาธาตุน้ำแดงอาจมีผลข้างเคียงต่อตับ ไต หัวใจ ทางเดินอาหาร และระบบประสาทส่วนกลาง รวมถึงอาจก่อให้เกิดภาวะน้ำตาลในเลือดต่ำได้

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