Validity and reliability of the Parenting Stress Index of children aged 1 month to 12 years

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Soontaree Srikosai, Ph.D.
Patcharee Moanchai, B.N.S.
Chadaporn Kamfou, B.N.S.
Siriwan Taweewattanaprecha, M.Sc., M.Ac.
Ratana Saipanish, M.D.


Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI)-Thai version.

Methods: The instrument development research design was conducted based on the original scale with 36 items in two phases. Phase 1 encompassed the scale translation and readability testing of each question. Phase 2 included evaluation of the PSI psychometric properties through field-testing with 510 parents of delayed development children and parents of normal children using: 1) items analysis, 2) construct validity through exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, and 3) Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for reliability. 

Results: Overall, good item discrimination power was shown for all thirty-six items. There were 33 items that had an item-total correlation of at least 0.3 (r≥0.3), and 33 items with results close to the mean of a 5-point scale. Reliability analysis showed a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.88. Exploratory factor analysis revealed six components with 36 items of the scale: parents tend to be depressed, interaction between parents and children, behaviours of children, emotional expression of children, expectations of parents, and attitude of being a parent. Thirty-six items had factor loadings ranking from 0.40 to 0.75, and displayed a total variance of 49.3%. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the model of parental distress (PD), parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P-CDI), and difficult child (DC) were relevant to the empirical data.    

Conclusion: The PSI has high construct validity and high reliability. Therefore, the PSI can be used as a scale of parent’s stress assessment and a measurement tool of intervention outcomes for parental stress management studies.


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