Quality of Life and Level of Hemoglobin A1c Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Main Article Content

Suwannee Sroisong
Angkhana Rueankon
Panthiracha Fuongtong
Kunnaya Kaewtankham


The aim of this descriptive research was to study the relationship between Quality of Life - QOL - and the eve of Hemoglobin A1c - HbA1c. Using purposive sampling, the sample size was 343 patients withType 2 Diabetes Mellitus--T2DM who were receiving medical services in DM--Diabters Mellitus  clinic at the out-patient department at Amphorae Hospital.  Data were collected by using the following questionnaires: Socio-demographic data, Health profiles and, The Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire, which had a reliability of the Alpha Cronbach’s coefficient of .85. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation Coefficients. The results showed that the overall score of QOL was high (M=5.01, SD.=1.34). Relationship between QOL of T2DM patients and HbA1c levels revealed a negative correlation and significant level (r= .156, p=.004). In conclusion, the study led to understandings about poorer glycemic control related to health problems and comorbidity and low quality of life for patients with T2DM.



Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Author Biography

Suwannee Sroisong, Boromarajonani, College of Nursing, Buddhachinaraj

Department of Adult and Eldery Nursing


Aekplakorn, W. (2016). Thai National Health Examination Survey V--NHES V study group. Nonthaburi: Health System Research Institute. (in Thai)
American Diabetes Association. (2014). Standards of medical care in diabetes-2014. Diabetes Care, 37(Supplement 1), S14-S77.
Berard, L. D., Blumer, I., Houlden R., Miller, D., & Woo, V. (2013).Clinical practice guideline: monitoring glycemic control. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 37(supplement 1), S5-39.
Bureau of Non Communicable Diseases. (2016). Number and rate of illness in non communicable diseases in 2015. Retrieved from https://www.thaincd.com/2016/mission/documents.php?tid=32&gid=1-020. (in Thai)
Chatreewarote, M., & Navicharern, R. (2015). Factors related to quality of life in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Journal of Nursing Science Chulalongkorn University, 27(1), 70-82. (in Thai)
Chew, B. H., Shariff-Ghazali, S., & Fednandez, A. (2014). Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients. World Journal of Diabetes, 5(6), 796-808.
Chew, B. H., Mohd-Sidik, S., & Shariff-Ghazali, S. (2015). Negative effects of diabetes-related distress on health-related quality of life: An evaluation among the adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. Health and Quality of life Outcomes, 13(187), 1-16.
Diabetes Clinic, Out-Patient Department. Phrae Hospital (2016). Number of patients with diabetes (Research report). Phrae: Out patient Department, Phrae Hospital. (in Thai)
International Diabetes Federation. (2017). IDF diabetes atlas (8th ed). Retrieved from https://diabetesatlas.org/resources/2017-atlas.html
Israel, G.D. (2003). Determining sample size. Retrieved from https://www.tarleton.edu/academicassessment/documents/Samplesize.pdf
Jodar-Gimeno, E., Alvarez-Guisasola, F., Avila-Lachica, L., Palomares-Ortega, R., Roldan-Suarez,C., & Lizan-Tudela, L. (2015). Quality of life and fear for hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Revista Clínica Española, 215(2), 91-97.
Kalra, S., & Sahay, R. (2018). Diabetes fatigue syndrome. Diabetes Therapy, 9(4), 1421-1429.
Klaonsanteau, S. (2011). Quality of life of diabetic mellitus persons: A case study at Muangyang Hospital, Nakhonratchasima .The Journal of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nakhonratchasima, 17(1), 31-44.
Kumar, P., Agarwal, N., Singh, C. M., Pandey, S., Ranjan, A., & Kumar, D. (2016). Diabetes and quality of life-a pilot study. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5(6), 1143-1147.
Lau, C. Y., Qureshi, A. K., & Scott, S. G. (2004). Association between glycemic control and quality of life in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Postgrad Medical, 50(3), 189-194.
Lewko, J., & Misiak, B. (2015). Relationships between quality of life, anxiety, depression and diabetes. Annals of Depression and Anxiety, 2(1), 1040-1041.
Nitiyannant, W. (2016). Increasing a number of patients with diabetic mellitus are more than 5 million persons who has a common complications as “chronic kidney disease.” Retrieved from https://www.hfocus.org/content/2016/11/12992 (in Thai)
Pawaranggoon., W. (2017). Prevention of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients, Nunah Hospital, Bangkok. Chiangrai Medical Journal, 9(2), 73-82. (in Thai)
Rattarasarn, C. (2017). Current situation and cooperation to reform diabetes care in Thailand. Retrieved from https://www.novonordisk.com/.../Thailand%20Blueprint%20for%20Change_2017. (in Thai)
Rogon, I., Kasprzak, Z., & Szczesniak, T. (2017). Perceived quality of life and acceptance of illness in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Menopause Rev, 16(3), 79-85.
Shim, Y. T., Lee, J., Toh, M. P., Tang, W.E., & Ko, Y. (2012). Health-related quality of life and glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore. Diabetic Medicine, 29(8), 241-248.
Sonthon, P., Promthet, S., Changsirikulchai, S., Rangsin, R., Thinkhamrop, B., Rattanamonakolgul, S., & Hurst, C. P. (2017). The impact of the quality of care and other factors on progression of chronic kidney disease in Thai patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A nationwide cohort study. PLoS ONE, 12(7), 1-15.
Songraksa, K., & Lerkiatbundit, S. (2009). Development of a disease specific quality of life instrument: Thai version of the Diabetic-39. Songklanagarind Medical Journal, 27(1), 35-49. (in Thai)
Sroisong, S., Rueankon, A., Apichantramethakul, K., Nunta, N., & Sukkaseam, J. (2017). Perceived self-care behavior among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control. Journal of Phrapokklao College, 28(2), 93-103. (in Thai)
Stration, I. M., Adler, A.I., Andrew, H., Neil, W., Mathres, D. R., Manley, S. E., & Cull, C.A. (2000). Association of glycemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): Prospective observational study. BMJ, 321(12),405-412.
Tafazoli, M., Parman, A., & Azmoude, E. (2017). Sexual function and quality of life in diabetic women referring to health care centers in Mashhand. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 6(25), 1-7.
Theera-apisakkul, J., & Lueboonthavatchai., P. (2009). Quality of life associated psychosocial factors of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients in Somdejphraputthalertla Hospital, Samutsongkram Province. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 54(2), 185-196. (in Thai)
Trikkalinou, A., Papazafiropoulou, A. K., & Melidonis, A. (2017). Type 2 diabetes and quality of life. World Journal of Diabetes, 8(4), 120-129.
World Health Organization. (2019). WHOQOL: Measuring quality of life. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/whoqol-qualityoflife/en/