Social Support, Self-efficacy and Care Participation Among Parents of Hospitalized Children with Pneumonia in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, the People’s Republic of China

Main Article Content

Jie Zhang
Usanee Jintrawet
Pimpaporn Klunklin


          This study used a descriptive correlational design to explore the level of care participation among parents of hospitalized children with pneumonia, and to describe the relationship between social support, self-efficacy and care participation among parents of hospitalized children with pneumonia in Chengdu city, Sichuan province, the People’s Republic of China. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 85 parents who completed the Demographic Data Form, the Social Support Questionnaire, a Parental Self-efficacy Scale and a Parents Actual Participation Scale at two hospitals in China. Among parents of children hospitalized with pneumonia, the total mean score of care participation was at a high level, social support showed a statistically significant positive correlation to care participation, and self-efficacy showed a statistically significant positive correlation to care participation. Chinese parents of hospitalized children with pneumonia showed a total mean score of care participation at a high level. Each dimension of care participation was at a high level, except for decision making. The results of this research could guide health professionals to encourage parents to participate more in the decision-making process. A plan or guideline should be developed to enhance care participation to be more effective for hospitalized children with pneumonia.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บทความวิจัย (Research articles)


Abdelkader, R., Arabiat, D. H., Holmes, S. L., & Hamdan-Mansour, A. (2016). Socio-demographic correlates of parents’ participation in care of a hospitalized child: A perspective from a developing country. Journal of Child Health Care, 20(3), 374-383.

Abdelkader, R., Khalaf, I., Kridli, S., Arabiat, D., & Alrimawi, I. (2016). Parents involvement in child's care in an Arab pediatric setting. Health Science Journal, 10(4), 1-6.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Balling, K., & McCubbin, M. (2001). Hospitalized children with chronic illness: parental caregiving needs and valuing parental expertise. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 16(2), 110-119.

Chinese Hospital Association. (2019). Patient safety goals. Retrieved from

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155-159.

DeAntonio, R., Yarzabal, J. P., Cruz, J. P., Schmidt, J. E., & Kleijnen, J. (2016). Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia and implications for vaccination of children living in developing and newly industrialized countries: A systematic literature review. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 12(9), 2422-2440.

Gyeltshen, D. (2012). A comparison of parent participation between actual and desired care for Bhutanese parents in the care of their hospitalized child. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Department of Nursing, Burapha University. Thailand.

Kantahong, K., Niyomkar, S., & Lamchang, S. (2015). Factors predicting parent participation in caring for hospitalized children with acute illness. Nursing Journal, 42(3), 1-12.

Kristensson-Hallstrom, I. (1999). Strategies for feeling secure influence parents’ participation in care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 8(5), 586-592.

Kyle, T., & Carman, S. (Eds.) (2017). Essentials of pediatric nursing (3rd ed). Wolters Kluwer Health.

Li, Y., An, Z., Yin, D., Liu, Y., Huang, Z., Ma, Y., ... & Wang, H. (2017). Disease burden of community acquired pneumonia among children under 5 y old in China: A population based survey. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 13(7), 1681-1687.

Madawala, S. G. M. L. (2019). Social support, parental self-efficacy, and care practices among parents of children with congenital heart disease, the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Chiang Mai University. Thailand.

McAllister, D. A., Liu, L., Shi, T., Chu, Y., Reed, C., Burrows, J., …& Nair, H. (2019). Global, regional, and national estimates of pneumonia morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years between 2000 and 2015: a systematic analysis. The Lancet. Global Health, 7(1), e47–e57.

Melnyk, B. M., Alpert-Gillis, L., Feinstein, N. F., Crean, H. F., Johnson, J., Fairbanks, E., ... & Corbo-Richert, B. (2004). Creating opportunities for parent empowerment: program effects on the mental health/coping outcomes of critically ill young children and their mothers. Pediatrics, 113(6), e597-e607.

Ngoc Han, N. T. (2015). Factors related to self-efficacy in caring for young children with pneumonia among Vietnamese mothers. (Unpublished master's thesis). Burapha University. Thailand.

Phuong, D. T., Pongjatyrawit, Y., & Chaimongkol, N. (2016). A comparison between actual and preferred participation in the care among parents of hospitalized children in Vietnam. Thai Pharmaceutical and Health Science Journal, 11(4), 137-143.

Pillitteri, A. (Eds.) (2014). Maternal & child health nursing. Wolters Kluwer.

Polit, D. F. (Eds.) (1996). Data analysis and statistics for nursing research. New York: Appleton & Lange.

Pongjaturawit, Y. (2005). Parent participation in the care of hospitalized young children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Chiang Mai University. Thailand.

Pourkhani, S., Chehrzad, M. M., Masouleh, S. R., & Leyli, E. K. N. (2018). The effect of family-based care on stress, anxiety, and depression of mothers with premature infants. Journal of Holistic Nursing and Midwifery, 28(2), 121-128.

Reblin, M., & Uchino, B. N. (2008). Social and emotional support and its implication for health. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 21(2), 201-205.

Rini, C., Manne, S., DuHamel, K., Austin, J., Ostroff, J., Boulad, F., ... & Sexson, S. (2008). Social support from family and friends as a buffer of low spousal support among mothers of critically ill children: A multilevel modeling approach. Health Psychology, 27(5), 593-603.

Samit, J., Lamchang, S., & Mesukko, J. (2013). Informational support, self-efficacy and parent participation in caring for hospitalized children with acute illness. Nursing Journal, 40(4), 114-125.

Sanders, M. R., & Woolley, M. L. (2005). The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: Implications for parent training. Child: Care, Health & Development, 31(1), 65-73.

Schepp, K., G. (1995). Psychometric assessment of the preferred participation scale for parent of hospitalized children. (Unpublished manuscript). University of Washington, School of Nursing, Seattle, WA.

Siriwan, S., Yunee P., & Nujjaree, C. (2018). Factors predicting maternal participation in caring for children with Leukemia receiving chemotherapy. The Journal of Faculty of Nursing Burapha University, 26(4), 70-79.

Wongcheeree, T., Chaimongkol, N., & Pongjaturawit, Y. (2011). Factors influencing parent participation in the care of hospitalized children. Journal of Faculty of Nursing Burapha University, 19(3), 23-36.

World Health Organization. (2019). Pneumonia. Retrieved from