Main Article Content
The purpose of this descriptive correlational research was to explore couvade syndrome and the correlation of stress, fears of childbirth with couvade syndrome in first-time expectant fathers. The subjects were selected following the inclusion criteria and consisted of 85 first-time expectant fathers who brought their wives to the antenatal clinic at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital and Chiang Mai Health Promotion Center region 1 Hospital, from March to May 2020. The research tools comprised demographic data, Couvade syndrome questionnaire, Suanprung Stress Test-20 (SPST-20), Paternal Fear of Childbirth Scale (P-FOCS). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient.
Results of the study revealed that most of subjects (90.60%) had low level of couvade syndrome. Mean score of couvade syndrome was 34.98 (SD = 24.35). Subjects had couvade syndrome from 1 to 49 symptoms. The most common of physical symptoms included increased appetite, weight gain, food cravings, back pain and fatigue accounted for 68.23, 64.70, 63.53, 56.47 and 54.12% respectively. The most common of psychological symptoms included more happy, early morning waking up, sleeping less than usual, sleeping more than usual, and feeling irritable accounted for 90.59, 56.46, 51.76, 50.59 and 49.41% respectively. Stress had a significant positive correlation with couvade syndrome (r = .61, p<.01). Fears of childbirth had a significant positive correlation with couvade syndrome (r = .39, p<.01). The findings suggest that the result of this study can provide basic information to develop effective nursing care plans that reduce the couvade syndrome in first-time expectant fathers.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Uttaradit Journal attribution-non-commercial 4.0 international (CC BY-NC 4.0). For more detail please visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ . The ideas and opinions expressed in the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Uttaradit are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the editor .
Bogren, L. Y. (1984). The couvade syndrome: Background variables. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 70, 316-320.
Brennan, A. (2010). Couvade syndrome in Australian men: a national survey. Our national couvade survey – Full report article. Kingston University, St. George’s & University of London, London.
Brennan, A., Marshall-Lucette, S., Ayers, S., & Ahmed, H. (2007). A qualitative exploration of the couvade syndrome in expectant fathers. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 25(1), 18-39.
Clinton, J. F. (1986). Expectant fathers at risk of couvade. Nursing Research, 30, 281-284.
Clinton, J. F. (1987) Physical and emotional responses of expectant fathers throughout pregnancy and the early postpartum period. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 24(1), 59-68.
Deave, T., Johnson, D., & Ingram, J. (2008). Transition to parenthood: The needs of parents in pregnancy and early parenthood. Biomedcentral Pregnancy and Childbirth, 8(30), 1-11.
Dickens, G., & Trethowan, W. A. (1971). Cravings and aversions during pregnancy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 15, 259-268.
Eriksson, C., Westman, G., & Hamberg, K. (2005). Experiential factors associated with childbirth-related fear in Swedish women and men: A population based study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 26(1), 63-72.
Ganapathy, T. (2014). Couvade syndrome among 1st time expectant fathers. Muller Journal
of Medical Science and Research, 5(1), 43–47.
Kazmierczak, M., Kielbratowska, B., Pastwa-Wojciechowska, B., & Preis, K. (2013). Couvade syndrome among Polish expectant fathers. Medical Science Monitor, 19, 132-138.
Khanobdee, C., Sukratanachaiyakul, V., & Templeton, G. J. (1993). Couvade syndrome in expectant Thai fathers. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 30(2), 125-131.
Laplante, P. (1991). The Couvade Syndrome: The biological, psychological, and social
impact of pregnancy on the expectant father. Canadian Family Physician, 37, 1633– 1660.
Marsiglio, W., Amato, P., Day, R. D., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1173-1191.
Masoni, S., Maio, A., Trimarchi, G., Punzio, C. D., & Fioretti, P. (1994). The couvade syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 15, 125-131.
Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine Chiang Mai University. (2018). Maternal-Fetal Medicine 2018. Chiang Mai: Faculty of Medicine Chiang Mai University. (in Thai).
Miller, L. H., Smith, A. D., & Rothstein, L. (1993). The stress solution: an action plan to manage the stress in your life. New York: Pocket Books.
Mrayan, L., Cornish, F., Dhungana, N., & Parfitt, B. (2016). Transition to parenthood during the transition to modernity in Jordan: New parents’ views on family and healthcare support systems. Applied Nursing Research, 32, 139–143.
Mrayan, L., Abujilban, S., Abuidhail, J., Yassein, M. B., & Al-Modallal, H. (2018). Couvade syndrome among Jordanian expectant fathers. American Journal of Men’s Health, 1-9. doi:10.1177/1557988318810243journals.sagepub.com/home/jmh
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Rucha, Y., Lertmaleewong, M., Laohachinda, Y., Leesuwan, W., Putwattana, P., & Thanurak, R. (1994). Nursing Research. Bangkok: Siamsilp Printing Company. (in Thai).
Sansiriphun, N. (2009). Becoming a first time father among Thais. Unpublished doctor dissertation, Chang Mai University, Chang Mai, Thailand.
Sansiriphun, N., Baosoung, C., Soivong, P., & Sangkhum, N. (2017). Development of paternal fear of childbirth scale. Nursing Journal, 44(2), 35-45. (in Thai).
Sansiriphun, N., Kantaruksa, K., Klunklin, A., Baosuang, C., & Jordan, P. (2010). Thai men becoming a first-father. Nursing & Health Sciences, 12(4), 403-409. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2018.2010.00549.x
Trethowan, W. H., & Conlon, M. F. (1965). The couvade syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 57-66.
Tsai, S., & Chen, C. (1997). Somatic symptoms, stress and social support of expectant fathers (Chinese). Nursing Research, 5(5), 439-451.
Wijma, K., Wijma, B., & Zar, M. (1998). Psychometric aspects of the W-DEQ: A new questionnaire for the measurement of fear of childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 19, 84-97.