Factors related with post-traumatic stress disorder: Thai national mental health survey 2013

Main Article Content

Nopporn Tantirangsee
Kantawan Makwichit
Wichai Likhasithdamrongkul
Anchalee Boonrattana
Metta Lertkiatratchata


          Objectives To study the factors related with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Thai population.
          Materials and methods The Thai national mental health survey data in 2013 was used. It was cross sectional study, stratifi ed four stage sampling, household survey and face to face interview. The total 4,727 samples were Thai population aging 18 years old and over. The study instrument was World
Mental Health Survey Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (WMH-CIDI 3.0). The factors related with PTSD including demographic data, types of traumatic experiences, psychiatric comorbidities and chronic physical illness were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression and reported with
adjusted odd ratios (AOR) at the 95% level of confi dence.
           Results The factors related with PTSD were female (AOR=3.6), widows (AOR=2.8), life-threatening accident (AOR=3.0), the intimate ever had an extremely traumatic experience (AOR=3.4), domestic violence (AOR=2.7), and see someone being badly injured or killed (AOR=5.8), the comorbid psychiatric disorders including alcohol use disorders (AOR=4.4), psychotic like experiences (AOR=2.8), and the chronic physical illness including the gastrointestinal disease (AOR=2.7).
           Conclusion Types of severe traumatic experiences (occurred with oneself or relatedness), psychiatric comorbidities and chronic physical illness are factors related with PTSD. The results can be planed for setting up the mental health surveillance system in Thai population. The policy maker can use the results as the guidance for proactive prevention strategies in the future.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Original article


1. Deep south incident database. Summary of incidents in southern Thailand from January 2004 to September 2016.
Pattani: Deep south watch; 2016.
2. Makvijit K. Situation and trend of mental health problems in people affected by unrested situation in southernmost
provinces of Thailand from 2009 to 2011. Songkhla: Songkhla Rajanagarindra psychiatric hospital; 2013.
3. Department of Mental Health. Care for children affected by unrested situation in southernmost provinces of Thailand: manual for public health personnel. Bangkok: Agricultural co-operative federation of Thailand printing house; 2008.
4. Keawkingkeo S. Psychiatric nursing. 2nded. Bangkok: Thammasat printing house; 2011.
5. Perkonigg A, Kessler RC, Storz S, Wittchen HU. Traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: prevalence, risk factors and comorbidity. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000;101:46–59.
6. Boonyamalik P, Suksawang S, Swangwongsin S. A one-year cohort study in mental health problems of the flooding victims in Uttaradit, 2005. J Psychiatr Assoc Thai 2012;57:165–74.
7. Sareen J. Posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: impact, comorbidity, risk factors and treatment. Can J Psychiatry 2014;59:460–7.
8. Kittirattanapaiboon P, Tantirangsee N, Chutha W, Assanangkornchai S, Supanya S. Thai national mental health survey 2013: methodology and procedure. J Ment Health Thai 2016;24:1–14.
9. Kittirattanapaiboon P, Tantirangsee N, Chutha W, Tanaree A, Kwansanit P, Assanangkornchai S. Prevalence of mental
disorders and mental health problems: Thai national mental health survey 2013. J Ment Health Thai 2017;25:1–19.
10. Kish L. A procedure for objective respondent selection within the household. J Am Stat Assoc 1949;44:380-7.
11. Kessler RC, Ustün TB. The world mental health (WMH) survey initiative version of the world health organization
(WHO) composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2004;13:93–121.
12. Rao J, Scott A. On chi-squared tests for multi-way tables with cell proportions estimated from survey data. Ann Stat 1984;12:46–60.
13. Kwak C, Clayton-Matthews A. Multinomial logistic regression. Nurs Res 2002;51:404–10.
14. R foundation for Statistical Computing. The comprehensive R archive network. Retrieved from https://cran.r-project.
org. [2 February 2017]
15. Lumley T. Survey: Analysis of complex survey samples. Retrieved from https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/survey/index.html. [2 February 2017]
16. Gil S, Weinberg M, Or-Chen K, Harel H. Risk factors for DSM 5 PTSD symptoms in Israeli civilians during the Gaza war. Brain Behav 2015;5:e00316.
17. Christiansen DM, Hansen M. Accounting for sex differences in PTSD: a multi-variable mediation model. Eur J Psychotraumatel 2015;6:26068.
18. Zisook S, Chentsova-Dutton Y, Shuchter SR. PTSD following bereavement. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1998;10:157–
19. Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity
Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52:1048–60.
20. Müller M, Vandeleur C, Rodgers S, Rössler W, Castelao E, Preisig M, et al. Factors associated with comorbidity
patterns in full and partial PTSD: fi ndings from the PsyCoLaus study. Compr Psychiatry 2014;55:837–48.
21. Thavichachart N, Tangwongchai S, Worakul P, Kanchanatawan B, Suppapitiporn S, Pattalung AS, et al. Post-Traumatic
stress disorder of the tsunami survivors in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92:420–9.
22. Lai T-J, Chang C-M, Connor KM, Lee L-C, Davidson JRT. Full and partial PTSD among earthquake survivors
in rural Taiwan. J Psychiatr Res 2004;38:313–22.
23. Leeies M, Pagura J, Sareen J, Bolton JM. The use of alcohol and drugs to self-medicate symptoms of posttraumatic
stress disorder. Depress Anxiety 2010;27:731–6.
24. Auxéméry Y, Fidelle G. Psychosis and trauma. Theorical links between post-traumatic and psychotic symptoms.
L’Encephale 2011;37:433–8.
25. Savas LS, White DL, Wieman M, Daci K, Fitzgerald S, Laday Smith S et al. Irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia among women veterans: prevalence and association with psychological distress. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009;29:115–25.
26. Gruber M, Byrd R. Post-traumatic stress disorder and GI endoscopy: a case study. Gastroenterol Nurs 1993;16:17–20.
27. Mayer EA, Craske M, Naliboff BD. Depression, anxiety, and the gastrointestinal system. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62Suppl8:28–36; discussion 37.