Factors Predicting Health Literacy among Students with Multiple Risk Behaviors in Non-Formal Education


  • Pantip Kul-ak Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Arpaporn Powwattana Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Sunee Lagampan Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Naruemon Auemaneekul Department of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand


Introduction: This study used an ecological model as a conceptual framework. The studied factors consisted of personal factors, familial factors, and social factors. Research Objective: To explore factors predicting health literacy among students with multiple risk behaviors in non-formal education. Research Methodology: This study was a cross-sectional survey. Sample was 326 high school students with multiple risk behaviors under the Non-Formal Education Center, East Bangkok Region. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit the participants. . Data were collected using a set of questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and Step-wise multiple regression analysis. Results: Factors associated with health literacy of students with multiple risk behaviors were female gender, class level, grade point average, attitude towards multiple risk behavior avoidance, family relationships, control and monitoring by the family, support from healthcare providers, and education. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that family relationships, support from healthcare providers, education, female gender, and grade point average together explained 27.8% (R2=0.278; p<0.05) of the variance in health literacy among students with multiple risk behaviors. Conclusions: Development of health literacy among students with multiple risk behaviors is supported and promoted by personal factors, familial factors, and social factors. These findings are consistent with the conceptual framework of the ecological model. Implications: The findings can be used as empirical data to develop a program for improving health literacy among students with multiple risk behaviors. Public health personnel should cooperate with the non-formal education system to promote education, health information accessibility, and attitude modification to avoid multiple risk behaviors focusing on family engagement and to promote good relationships in family.


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How to Cite

Kul-ak P, Powwattana A, Lagampan S, Auemaneekul N. Factors Predicting Health Literacy among Students with Multiple Risk Behaviors in Non-Formal Education. JHNR [Internet]. 2021 Aug. 13 [cited 2023 Feb. 7];37(2):86-99. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/bcnbangkok/article/view/251176



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