Main Article Content
Health problems might caused by exposure to PM2.5, when we breathe in an area filled with small particles. Such small particles can pass through the nose and mouth into the respiratory system and blood circulation. The particles can affect various human organs such as lungs, heart, and brain as well as the immune system. The key mechanisms by which PM2.5 causes various health problems are oxidative stress, inflammation and gene toxicity. This experimental research aimed to evaluate the effects of Thoranee Santhakat, a Thai herbal drug, on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) of participants who were exposed to PM2.5 while working for 8–10 hours/day and lived in such an area. Fifteen male participants aged 21-45 years were recruited based on the inclusion criteria. Prior to the experiment, participants were tested for serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6. The participants who had increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were recruited and received Thoranee Santhakat 4 capsules/day (240 mg/capsule) at bedtime for 2 weeks. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were measured using the ELISA technique. Side effects that might occur during drug administration period were recorded. The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured again after experiment. Oral administration of Thoranee Santhakat for two weeks in 15 male participants who were exposed to PM2.5 showed a significant reduction in the serum levels of TNF-α (20.71 ± 8.52 pg/mL) and IL-6 (4.36 ± 1.43 pg/mL) as compared with those before taking medicine (TNF-α, 58.88 ± 16.16 pg/mL; IL-6, 5.07 ± 1.49 pg/mL) and no severe adverse effects occurred. Thoranee Santhakat showed a positive correlation or a tendency to have declining serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in participants who were exposed to PM2.5. However, the increased serum levels of these participants at the start of experiment might be due to factors other than PM2.5 exposure. Therefore, further studies are required to explore stronger clinical evidence to support the use of Thoranee Santhakat in the prevention and treatment of diseases and/or abnormal conditions that may be caused by PM2.5 exposure.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Borirak T. The crisis lessons from PM 2.5 air pollution. EAU Heritage Journal, Science and Technology. 2019;13(3):44-58. (in Thai)
Ponpiboon T., Jayasvasti I., Roongpisuthipong A. Disaster in the winter of particle matter (PM 2.5). EAU Heritage Journal, Science and Technology. 2014;8(1):40-6. (in Thai)
Pollution Control Department. Thailand pollution situation report 2018. [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 Jun 26]; Available from: https://www.pcd.go.th/. (in Thai)
Junhasavasdikul B., Wanikiat P., Krobthong A., Chaiyasit K. Health effects of ambient air PM 2.5, pathogenesis and alternative medicine treatment. J Thai Trad Alt Med. 2020;18(1):187-202. (in Thai)
Sukcharoen W., Tangaromsuk P., Sontiatchara M., Waithayakul K., Savedkairop C., Poopongpet J., Kengkoom R., Bhubhanil S., Lapmanee S. The study on Thailand’s particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) management in accordance with the world health organization (WHO) guidelines. Vajira Medical Journal: Journal of Urban Medicine. 2020;64(5):345-56. (in Thai)
Kumar V., Abbas A.K., Aster J.C. Inflammation and repair. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p. 69-93.
Tang H., Cheng Z., Li N., Mao S., Ma R., He H., Niu Z, Chen X., Xiang H. The short- and long-term associations of particulate matter with inflammation and blood coagulation markers: A meta-analysis. Environ Pollut. 2020;267:115630.
Kurniawan A.T., Rizky Z.P., Ramdha D.H. Association between levels of particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in blood of employees at motor vehicle test center. In The 2nd International Meeting of Public Health 2016. KnE Life Sciences. p. 384–90. doi: 10.18502/kls.v4i4.2298
Zhu H., Wu Y., Kuang X., Liu H., Guo Z., Qian J., Wang D., Wang M., Chu H., Gong W., Zhang Z. Effect of PM 2.5 exposure on circulating fibrinogen and IL-6 levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chemosphere. 2021;271(Suppl.3):129565.
Strategy and Planning Division, Office of The Permanent Secretary for Public Health. Public health statistics 2018. [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 Jun 26]; Available from: https://www.bps.moph.go.th (in Thai)
National list of essential medicines. [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2021 Jun 26]; Available from: http://ndi.fda.moph.go.th/uploads/main_drug_file/20171021185635.pdf (in Thai)
Department of Medical Science. Ya Thor-Ra-Nee-San-Tha-Kat: Raw material quality and safety. 1st ed. Nonthaburi: Department of Medical Science; 2012. p. 159. (in Thai)
Tasleem F., Azhar I., Ali S.N., Perveen S., Mahmood Z.A. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of piper nigrum L. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine. 2014;7(1):461-8.
Chen W.S., An J., Li J.J., Hong L., Xing Z.B., Li C.Q. Piperine attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia. International Immunopharmacology. 2017;42:44-8.
Ying X., Chen X., Cheng S., Shen Y., Peng L., Xu H.Z. Piperine inhibits IL-β induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocyte. International Immunopharmacology. 2013;17(2):293-9.
Ozaki Y., Soedigdo S., Wattimena Y.R., Suganda A.G. Anti-inflammatory effect of mace, aril of Myristica fragrans HOUTT., and its active principles. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1989;49(2):155-63.
Dewi K., Widyarto B., Erawijantari P.P., Widowati W. In vitro study of Myristica fragrans seed (Nutmeg) ethanolic extract and quercetin compound as anti-inflammatory agent. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2015;3(9):2303-10.
Tanko Y., Mohammed A., Okasha M.A., Umah A., Magaji R.A. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in wistar rats and mice. Afr JTrad CAM. 2008;5(2):209-12.
Kamatou G.P., Vermaak I., Viljoen A.M. Eugenol-from the remote Maluku Islands to the international market place: A review of a remarkable and versatile molecule. Molecules. 2012;17(6):6953-81.
El-Abhar H.S., Hammad L.N.A., Gawad H.S.A. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118(3):367-72.
Black C.D., Herring M.P., Hurley D.J., O’Conner P.J. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. Journal of Pain. 2010;11(9):894-903.
Nirmala P., Selvaraj T. Anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2011;7(3):815-23.
Chunmei L., Taekil E., Yoonhwa J. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in RAW macrophages. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2015;61(5):375-81.
Raju R., Sunny A., Thomas J.K., Abraham L., Thankapan T.D.C. Isolation, characterization and in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Plumbago indica L. Advanced in Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2014;15(1):13-7.
Zheng W., Tao Z., Chen C., Zhang C., Zhang H., Ying X., Chen H. Plumbagin prevents IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes and prevents the progression of osteoarthritis in mice. Inflammation. 2019;42(4):1511-4.
Thaenkham A., Padumanonda T. The effectiveness and side effects of Ya Thor-Ra-Nee-San-Tha-Kat compared to naproxen tablets for the reduction of oxidative stress in patients with myofascial pain syndromes. Huachiew Chalermprakiat Science and Technology Journal. 2019;5(1):17-29.
Chopra B., Dhingra A.K., Kapoor R.P., Prasad D.N. Piperine and its various physicochemical and biological aspects: A review. Open Chemistry Journal. 2016;3:75-96.