Journal of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/tci22.png" width="715" height="402"></span></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn022222.png" width="681" height="383"></span></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn0033.png" width="605" height="174"></span></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; <a title="วารสารนี้ครอบคลุมโดยวารสารการแพทย์แผนไทยและการแพทย์ทางเลือก" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn004404.png" width="619" height="35"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/NEWS.gif" width="83" height="30">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/ลูกศร_Gif_(31).gif" width="54" height="36"></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn-01.png" width="569" height="222"></span></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jtam1819-2.gif" width="272" height="385"></span></span></strong></p> Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine en-US Journal of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine 1685-991X Policy and Ethics <p>N/A</p> Vichai Chokevivat Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 Monograph of Select Thai Material Medica: SAMO PHIPHEK <p>N/A</p> Subcommittee on the Preparation of Monographs of Selected Thai Materia Medica Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 415 418 Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Volume 2 (Chinese-Thai-English) (12) <p>N/A</p> Tawat Buranatawonsom Wang Xiaotao Suchada Anotayanonth Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 419 426 SAMO PHIPHEK <p>N/A</p> Thongchai Sooksawate Rutchanee Chantraket Rutchanee Chantraket Pakakrong KwanKhao Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 432 431 Editorial Board <p>N/A</p> Vichai Chokevivat Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 A Retrospective Study on the Use of Prabchompoothaweep Remedy to Reduce Symptoms of Upper Respiratory Allergies at Samut Sakhon Hospital <p>This is a retrospective descriptive study collecting data from medical records of patients with upper respiratory allergies treated with Prabchompoothaweep herbal remedy at Samut Sakhon Hospital from January 1 through December 31, 2016. The study tool was a record form for collecting data on general information and the use of Prabchompoothaweep remedy. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution and percentage determination. The results showed that, of all the patients who received treatment, most of them or 80.37% were female, 64.49% were in the age range of 32–60 years, 66.36% were covered by the state health-care schemes, 100% had no history of allergy, and 62.61% had water as host element. Among the patients, 80.37% or most of them had the symptoms of cold, stuffy nose, sneezing; 98.14% took 400 mg of the remedy 4 times before meals daily; 95.35% did not use any other modern/herbal medicines; 64.49% had received the remedy only once; and all of them had no adverse drug reactions. Thus, the study has revealed the general characteristics of patients and methods of using Prabchompoothaweep Remedy in patients undergoing treatment for upper respiratory tract disease. This information may be used as a basis for planning the next treatment of patients with upper respiratory allergies with Prabchompoothaweep Remedy.</p> jeeranun boonim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 398 404 The Cancer Patients' Attitudes toward Cannabis Oil Treatment, Medical Cannabis Clinic, Detudom Crown Prince Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani Province <p>Cannabis was previously used as a medicine and, in 1979, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared cannabis or marijuana as a narcotic. In 2019, cannabis was unlocked for medical use in Thailand. Since then Detudom Crown Prince Hospital has offered medical cannabis services, and most of its recipients (57%) are cancer patients. This study involved a sample of 25 cancer patients between July and September 2020; most of them were female, aged 50–59 years. Its aim was to explore cancer patients' attitudes toward cannabis oil [DTAM GANJA OIL (Deja formula)] in cancer treatment, learn what patients knew about medical cannabis, identify the reasons why cancer patients chose cannabis oil as an adjunctive treatment with modern medicine, and survey the side effects caused by using cannabis oil in cancer patients. The results showed that all the 25 patients had positive attitudes because cannabis oil helped them sleep better, wake up refreshed, relieve pain, and eat better. Therefore, they wished to use cannabis oil together with modern medical treatment. Among all patients, 23 had not known before about cannabis at all, but they used it because of word-of-mouth communication, only 2 had little knowledge, 92% had no side effects, and all (100%) with positive attitudes would like to use cannabis oil with their current treatment. </p> NATTIKA VANNAKAEW Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 405 414 Editor's Note <p>N/A</p> Vichai Chokevivat Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 219 222 Chinese Herbal Medicines Frequently Used to Treat Stage 4 Diabetic Nephropathy <p>The purpose of this study was to search for clinical research papers related to Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of stage 4 diabetic nephropathy (or diabetic kidney decease), and to analyze the principles of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of stage 4 diabetic nephropathy using the method of searching for published research data from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) online database system of the People's Republic of China. There were 71 research papers related to this topic. The results have shown that the top five frequently used Chinese herbal medicines are: Huangqi, Danshen, Fuling, Shanyao and Dahuang. According to the research, most of Chinese herbal medicines have a sweet taste with a moderately warm property when entering the spleen meridian energy line. Therefore, it is clear that the principles of Chinese herbal medicine for treating stage 4 diabetic nephropathy are based on the underlying mechanism of disease, which is mainly caused by Yang deficiency in the spleen and kidneys. For this reason, the most commonly used Chinese herbal medicine is Huangqi, which has a sweet taste with warm, medium properties and can enter the spleen meridian energy line the most.</p> Pawinee Charoensirisuttikul Ubon Mara Ladapha Kim-ing Yupa Sriwirat Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 363 369 Traditional Chinese Medicine and Healthcare Options in the Globalization Era <p>Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a medical science with a long history of thousands of years and has been one of the most important and popular alternative medical disciplines in Thailand. TCM plays an important role in health work as it has an extensive treatment scope and low cost of treatment. It is also suitable for social and economic conditions in the globalization era. The science of TCM is unique in (1) the concept of a holistic view of health, which emphasizes the importance of being a holistic body of organs and tissues throughout the body as well as their relationship with nature, and (2) the treatment according to disease classification, based on a combination of four examination methods to find disease-causing factors, disease characteristics, location of the disease and disease mechanism analysis. With the distinctive identity of TCM that is different from other sciences, its popularity and use as alternative medicine for healthcare among of the Thai people have been rising. In the Thai public health services, TCM has been adopted with a focus on two areas: disease prevention and health promotion, using specific TCM techniques and practices such as guasha, cupping, acupuncture and electrical stimulation, etc., in order to contribute to people's good health in the changing era of globalization.</p> warangkhana klajing Pongnared Jaengpromma Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 370 383 Existence of Folk Healers, Chiang Rai Province <p>Indigenous (folk) medicine is the wisdom of health care that varies from region to region and has been influenced by changes in society, economy, and culture. This study aimed to explore the existence of folk healers in Chiang Sean district of Chiang Rai province. The qualitative study was conducted in three folk healers. Data collected included personal demographics, information on the folk medical practice, perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and perceived barriers and adaptation. The findings showed that all folk healers had over ten years of treatment experience and specialized in a variety of disease groups, especially the musculoskeletal system and had a role as a teacher to transfer knowledge as well. Perceived self-efficacy was related to successful mastery experience. And outcome expectation was related to pride that the patient was healthy. Reduction in patients, economic impacts, declining herbs availability due to deforestation and scarcity of disciples to conserve knowledge were obstacles related to the existence of folk healers. All folk healers attempted to adapt, especially in the use of technology to help with communication with patients and transportation of herbal medicines. Thus, stakeholders should encourage public participation in forest conservation and encourage local healers to gain knowledge and skills in using technology for retaining their roles in the ever-changing Thai society.</p> Ritichai Pimpa Chanapat Tipkanpirome Chin Khamkruang Natchanun Thaibunrod Patchanipa Jumroenjitsakul Sivaphorn Janted Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 384 397 Contents <p>N/A</p> Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 (9) (13) Efficacy and Safety of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. Medicated Spray and Topical Diclofenac Spray for the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Soft Tissue Injury: A Randomized Double-blinded Controlled Trial <p>Kraduk Kai Dam (<em>Justicia gendarussa</em> Burm.f.) has been used in folk medicine by pounding the leaves with rice whisky and using a poultice to treat muscle pain, bruises, and joint pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of <em>J. gendarussa </em>medicated spray (JGS) in comparison with that of diclofenac spray (DFS) to treat patients with mild to moderate soft tissue injury. A randomized double-blinded controlled trial was performed in the Orthopedic Surgery Department of Chao Phya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital, Prachin Buri province, Thailand. Patients aged 15–70 years were randomly assigned to receive either two puffs of JGS or DFS thrice daily for seven days. The patients’ decreases in rest pain and swelling were considered primary outcomes, while the use of pain medication, patients’ global assessment, and reported adverse events were secondary outcomes. The results showed that there were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. At the end of the study, the pain scores in the JGS and DFS groups were not different (mean difference VAS = -0.13, 95%CI -0.81, 0.56; <em>p</em> = 0.68); the reductions in swelling of the JGS and DFS groups were not differentt (risk ratio = 0.988, 95%CI 0.66, 1.48; <em>p</em> = 0.951); the amounts of paracetamol given to the patients were not different between the two groups (p = 0.194); and the skin irritation was not statistically different in both groups, i.e. 8.3% and 6.38% of the patients treated with JGS and DFS (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05), respectively. In summary, the efficacy and safety of JGS to treat mild to moderate tissue injuries were comparable to those of DFS.</p> Supaporn Pitiporn Natdanai Musigavong Saksit Chitkritsadakul Unchisa Kattalee Thanapong Pengpon Pakakrong Kwankhao Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 223 234 Effects of Foot Massage Using Traditional Tools on Foot Numbness in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis <p>Foot numbness leads to foot amputation for diabetic patients (0.2–1.6%). Foot massage can help to relieve foot numbness. Several studies have investigated the effects of foot massage using traditional tools on foot numbness among diabetic patients. The current study conducted a systematic review to summarize the effects of foot massage using traditional tools on foot numbness. Studies were searched for from multiple sources. Of the 1,231 records identified, 6 were eligible. Eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias and certainty of evidence. In a meta-analysis, Review Manager 5 was used to summarize the results. The included studies were analyzed using a fixed effects model, and the results showed that the diabetic patients receiving foot massage using traditional tools had fewer points of foot numbness than those in the control group. The standardized mean difference was -1.14 (95% CI: -1.40 to -0.88, I<sup>2</sup> = 0%). The findings indicate that foot massage with traditional tools could relieve numbness in diabetic patients; however, the evidence is unclear due to a high risk of bias and a very low level of certainty. The effects of traditional foot massage tools on foot numbness in diabetic patients should be further studied using a randomized controlled trial and a clearly described research methodology.</p> Nakarin Asiphong Prapassara Sirikarn Siriporn Kamsa-ard Duangjai Phormpayak Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 Effects of Herbal Lactagogue Remedy (Por Khao Chiab-Laem’s Formula) in Postpartum Women: An Open-Label Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial <p>The herbal lactagogue decoction formula of Por Khao Chiablaem, a well-respected local folk healer, has been used in postpartum women at Nong Song Hong Hospital, Khon Kaen province, since 2013. To establish clinical evidence on its efficacy, the effects of this herbal formula on milk flow score, volume of one-hour milk production, uterine fundal height, and lochial discharge were studied. The open-label, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in two groups of postpartum women at Nong Song Hong and Waeng Noi Hospitals as treatment group and control group, respectively. The treatment group was given the lactagogue decoction at the dose of 4 L/day for 10 days (the first dose was given right after the delivery), while the control group took the same dose of warm water. It was found that the cumulative number of participants who had milk flow score of 4 in the test group was higher than that in the control group from 3 to 36 hours postpartum. At the 36<sup>th</sup> hour, the cumulative number of such participants was 24/36 (66.7%) in the test group vs 13/36 (36.1%) in the control group (<em>p</em> = 0.009). The volume of milk production in one hour at 48 hours postpartum was 16.48±15.37 mL in the test group, compared to 10.06 ± 9.31 mL in the control group (<em>p</em> = 0.037). On day 14 postpartum, the test group had significantly lower uterine fundal height (1.50 ± 2.52 cm) than the control group (3.97 ± 3.88 cm) (<em>p</em> = 0.003). Meanwhile, the amount of lochial discharge and the time for the change of lochia color from blood red to yellow were not different between the two groups. In conclusion, this study shows that herbal lactagogue remedy (Por Khao Chiablaem’s formula) can promote early milk flow and increase milk production at 48 hours postpartum, as well as promote uterine involution, while not affecting lochial discharge.</p> Somchai Suriyakrai Sasiwimol Pongsupot Datchanee Thakong Piyapatsara Ree-in Wilaiwan Ngamying Yaowaluk Silawan Kasem Pathararitthikul Suppachai Tiyaworanant Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 253 267 The Effects of Using the Thai Ways Program to Stimulate Lactation on the Amount and Duration of Milk Flow in Postpartum Mothers <p>This quasi-experimental research aimed to compare the effects of using the Thai Ways program to stimulate lactation on the amounts and durations of milk flow in postpartum mothers. Study participants were 130 first-time mothers at 4 hours after normal delivery with normal vital signs; and they were purposively selected from those 21–35 years of age and randomly divided into five groups: 1) control group, 2) experimental group that drank boiled ginger drinks, 3) experimental group that received breast massage, 4) experimental group that received breast herbal compression, and 5) experimental group that received all treatments. Each of the experimental groups received one treatment that lasted 15 minutes, and their milk volumes were measured every hour after the experiment until 4 hours had passed. Data collection instruments were a questionnaire and a milk-volume record form. Milk quantity data were collected and analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, paired <em>t</em>-tests, and one-way ANOVA statistics. The results showed that, when comparing the differences in the volumes of maternal postpartum milk flow in the 2nd to 5th treatment groups from pre-program until the end of the 4-hour study period, the mean milk volumes were 0.63 ± 0.18, 2.01 ± 0.26, 2.94 ± 0.22, 4.54 ± 0.97 mL, respectively, and were significantly different from that in the control group (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), which had a mean milk volume of 0.16 ± 0.09 mL. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of the Thai Ways program to increase breast-milk flow at 4 hours after delivery could boost the amount of milk flow more rapidly from the first hour of the program with an average increase of 2.15 mL per hour. Thus, this program will be an alternative for promoting breastfeeding in health-care facilities.</p> Anunkaorn Jitcharerntham Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 268 281 The Evaluation of Potentials of Antioxidant Activities, Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, and Tannin Contents from Selected Species in Amanita Crude Extract <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of two common edible species of <em>Amanita,</em> <em>A. princeps </em>Corner &amp; Bas. and <em>A. javanica </em>Corner &amp; Bas. T. Oda, Tanaka &amp; Tsuda, which are local mushrooms of high commercial value. The antioxidant activities were determined by ABTS and FRAP assays, and the amounts of polyphenols (total phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and tannin) were examined in ethanol, methanol, and boiling water crude extracts of the mushrooms. The results showed that the highest percentage yields of 28.97% of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were found in <em>A. princeps</em> crude ethanolic extract at 18.41 ± 0.13 mg GAE/g extract using a gallic acid standard and 1017.99 ± 8.18 mg QE/g extract with a quercetin standard, while <em>A. princeps </em>crude extract with boiling water had the highest tannin level at 13.53 ± 0.45 mg tannic acid/g extract using a tannic acid standard. Regarding antioxidant activity testing, the two assays showed the highest values with boiling water extract of <em>A. javanica </em>in the ABTS assay, IC<sub>50</sub> as 0.75 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the FRAP assay of ethanolic <em>A. princeps </em>extract recorded 3650.67 ± 35.77 mg FeSO<sub>4</sub>/g extract.</p> Kritsada Champatasi Nucharee Chamnantap Areerat Saisong Khwanyuruan Khwanyuruan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 282 294 Prescribing Patterns, Safety and Effects of Suk Sai-Yad Thai Traditional Medicine Formula on Patients’ Quality of Life <p><em>Suk Sai-Yad</em> formula is a Thai traditional medicine (TTM) formula containing cannabis recorded in the Royal Scripture of King Narai’s Traditional Medicine. This formula containing 15.38% of cannabis leaves is recommended by the Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine and the Thai Traditional Medicinal Council for the treatment of patients with insomnia and loss of appetite. In the past, although cannabis was used as an ingredient in TTM remedies for a long time, when cannabis was classified as a schedule 5 narcotic under Thailand’s Narcotics Act B.E. 2522 (1979), medical use of cannabis-containing TTM preparations became illegal. Moreover, research and scientific evidence on its efficacy, safety, and patterns of use was also limited. This study aimed to determine prescribing patterns, adverse events, and quality of life of patients receiving <em>Suk Sai-Yad</em> formula. Therefore, a retrospective cohort study using a patient record review was conducted on patients visiting the Medical Cannabis Clinic at the Thai Traditional and Integrated Medicine Hospital for at least two visits from October 2019 to December 2020 and having follow-up treatment every month. A total of 138 patients (61.59% males and mean age 56.81 ± 15.51 years) participated in the study. The formula was prescribed for insomnia (87.68%), headache (7.97%), and other indications (4.35%) including loss of appetite, numbness and Parkinson’s disease. The initial doses were 0.5–2.0 g/day and the most prescribed initial dosage regimen was 1 g once a day (52.90%). Common maintenance doses prescribed were 2.0 g/day (44.18%) and 1.0 g/day (40.70%). Fifteen patients discontinued medication because of drug ineffectiveness. Researchers observed 31 adverse events in 23 patients, namely gastrointestinal irritation (7.97%), dizziness/headache (5.79%), dry mouth and dry throat (4.34%). Sixteen patients (11.59%) discontinued medication because of adverse effects. The quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-5L self-assessed questionnaire indicated that the average utility was 0.95 ± 0.11 at treatment initiation and 0.98 ± 0.05 (<em>P</em> &lt; .001) after 3-month treatment. In conclusion, it was found that despite a few non-serious adverse effects, <em>Suk Sai-Yad</em> formula is a safe and effective alternative medication that can improve the quality of life for patients with insomnia.</p> Apakorn Boontham Preecha Nootim Piyameth Dilokthornsakul Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 295 310 Cannabis Therapy from the Perception and Adoption of the People: Case Studies from Village Health Volunteers in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province <p>This is a mixed method study aiming to examine (1) perception and adoption of the use of cannabis therapy and (2) correlation between the perception and acceptance of cannabis therapy<strong>. </strong>The study involved a sample of 370 village health volunteers (VHVs) in U Thong district, Suphan Buri province. Data were collected using a questionnaire and interview, and then analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed that the level of perception of cannabis therapy was low (mean = 2.30, SD = 0.58) and the levels of adoption and use of cannabis therapy were moderate (mean and SD = 2.69, 0.66; 2.86, 0.81, respectively). The correlations between the perception, acceptance of cannabis therapy, and the use of cannabis therapy were moderately positive (r = 0.525 and 0.509, respectively). Therefore, to encourage the public to access information and to take advantage of medical cannabis appropriately and extensively, the knowledge and benefits of cannabis therapy should be promoted by spreading comprehensive information through a variety of channels, and cannabis research should be further carried out on various aspects to gain new knowledge that is truly beneficial for the people<strong>.</strong><strong> </strong></p> Khanista Wattanajindalert Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 311 321 Perspectives of Community Enterprises on the Liberal Medical Cannabis Policy <p>The objectives of this paper were to study (1) the development of the liberal medical cannabis policy, (2) the approved community enterprises for growing cannabis, and (3) the farmer groups who wanted join the community enterprises for growing cannabis. Thus study used qualitative research methods such as document research and interviews with key informants, namely community enterprises that were approved to grow cannabis and farmer groups who wanted to join community enterprises for growing cannabis; and inductive data analysis methods were deployed. The results showed that: (1) from 2019 and 2022, the liberal medical cannabis policy has provided patients with the opportunity to receive treatment at medical cannabis clinics and allowed community enterprises to legally grow cannabis; (2) in the perspective of approved community enterprises for growing cannabis, the policy aimed for medical use and income generation for community enterprises; and (3) in the perspective of farmers who wanted to join community enterprises for growing cannabis, the policy aimed for medical use and to give farmers the opportunity to legally grow cannabis. Thus, it is suggested that (a) the community enterprises that want to follow the liberal medical cannabis policy should develop their administrative systems according to the established standards and (b) the Ministry of Public Health together with relevant agencies should organize regional and local teams to be mentors and consultants for those that want to set up a cannabis growing community enterprise.</p> Nitiphol Thararoop Pongpirul Pongpirul Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 322 332 Standards of Herbal Materials and Herbal Products Developed by International Organization for Standard (ISO/TC 249) <p>The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) plays a role in the development of international standards. The standardization in the field of traditional Chinese medicine is undertaken by a technical committee known as ISO/TC 249. The committee focuses on quality and safety of raw materials, manufactured products and medical devices, informatics and service standards excluding the clinical practice or application of those products. According to the various working groups of the technical committee, the standards of herbal materials and herbal products are developed by working groups (WG) 1 and2. The objective of this article is to present the published ISO standards to promote the trade opportunities and support the international quality of herbal materials and herbal products. The published ISO standards contain the standards of certain herbal materials which are commercially available in Thailand, e.g. Ling Zhi and Japanese honey suckle, some of which are extensively used as the ingredients of Thai herbal preparations, i.e. ginger and rhubarb. The standards of testing methods are also published in order to assure quality and safety of herbal products. However, many standards of other herbal materials and testing methods are still under development. In comparison to the International Pharmacopoeia, the similarity of specifications is observed. The standards of ISO/TC 249 are approved by the committee from various countries which differs from the process of development of the particular Pharmacopoeia. The standards of ISO/TC 249 are consequently suitable for international trade. Therefore, the quality control of the raw materials and herbal products by referencing the ISO standards should be considered. </p> Supattra Rungsimakan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 20 2 346 362