Journal of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/tci22.png" width="715" height="402"></span></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn022222.png" width="681" height="383"></span></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn0033.png" width="605" height="174"></span></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; <a title="วารสารนี้ครอบคลุมโดยวารสารการแพทย์แผนไทยและการแพทย์ทางเลือก" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn004404.png" width="619" height="35"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/NEWS.gif" width="83" height="30">&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/ลูกศร_Gif_(31).gif" width="54" height="36"></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jn-01.png" width="569" height="222"></span></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/jtam01/jtam1819-2.gif" width="272" height="385"></span></span></strong></p> en-US (Rutchanee Chantraket) (Rutchanee Chantraket) Fri, 29 Apr 2022 22:48:08 +0700 OJS 60 The Role of Chinese Medicine for Treatment of COVID-19 <p>COVID-19 is a contagious disease caused by SARs-CoV-2 which has been spreading all over the world. The disease extensively affects human health and lives as well as the public health system, society and economy. It is therefore the worst pandemic problem that all countries pay great attention to, including Thailand, where the number of deaths from COVID-19 is constantly increasing. Meanwhile, in China, the number of infections and deaths can be quickly controlled since the beginning of the outbreak. The key factors in its success are strict lockdowns and screenings. China is also the first country that has applied traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in combination with Western medicine to treat COVID-19, making it possible to prevent and control the unpleasant circumstance of COVID-19 pandemic. The National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China has issued an official announcement on the treatment protocol for COVID-19 patients (Trial Version 8) on August 18, 2020. This protocol describes the methods for treating COVID-19 by using Chinese herbal medicines, acupuncture and moxibustion. This study reviews the results of traditional Chinese medications for preventing and treating COVID-19 as well as the COVID-19 in TCM’s perspective so that people have better understanding and knowledge about COVID-19 prevention and self-care based on TCM guidelines.</p> Poonyaphat Siriteerathitikul Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Effects of Thoranee Santhakat on TNF-α and IL-6 Plasma Levels in a Group of People Exposed to PM2.5: A Pilot Study <p>Health problems might caused by exposure to PM2.5, when we breathe in an area filled with small particles. Such small particles can pass through the nose and mouth into the respiratory system and blood circulation. The particles can affect various human organs such as lungs, heart, and brain as well as the immune system. The key mechanisms by which PM2.5 causes various health problems are oxidative stress, inflammation and gene toxicity. This experimental research aimed to evaluate the effects of <em>Thoranee Santhakat</em>, a Thai herbal drug, on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (<em>TNF-α</em>) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) of participants who were exposed to PM2.5 while working for 8–10 hours/day and lived in such an area. Fifteen male participants aged 21-45 years were recruited based on the inclusion criteria. Prior to the experiment, participants were tested for serum levels of <em>TNF-α </em>and<em> IL-6.</em> The participants who had increased serum levels of <em>TNF-α </em>and <em>IL-6 </em>were recruited and received <em>Thoranee Santhakat</em> 4 capsules/day (240 mg/capsule) at bedtime for 2 weeks. <em>TNF-α </em>and <em>IL-6 </em>levels were measured using the ELISA technique<em>. </em>Side effects that might occur during drug administration period were recorded. The serum levels of <em>TNF-α and IL-6</em> were measured again after experiment<em>. </em>Oral administration of <em>Thoranee Santhakat</em> for two weeks in 15 male participants who were exposed to PM2.5 showed a significant reduction in the serum levels of<em> TNF-α </em>(20.71 ± 8.52 pg/mL) and <em>IL-6 </em>(4.36 ± 1.43 pg/mL) as compared with those before taking medicine <em>(TNF-α, </em>58.88 ± 16.16 pg/mL; <em>IL-6,</em> 5.07 ± 1.49 pg/mL) and no severe adverse effects occurred<em>. </em><em>Thoranee Santhakat</em> showed a positive correlation or a tendency to have declining serum levels of <em>TNF-α </em>and <em>IL-6 </em>in participants who were exposed to PM2.5. However, the increased serum levels of these participants at the start of experiment might be due to factors other than PM2.5 exposure. Therefore, further studies are required to explore stronger clinical evidence to support the use of <em>Thoranee Santhakat</em> in the prevention and treatment of diseases and/or abnormal conditions that may be caused by PM2.5 exposure.</p> Patchamon Jiraprapaporn, Payong Wanikiat Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Efficacy of Prasanamnom Recipe in Increasing Breast Milk Volume in Postpartum Mothers <p>Breastfeeding is the starting point for promoting children's health to prevent various diseases in infants. Prasanamnom recipe was introduced in Pathomjinda, a Thai traditional medicine scripture, for its lactation-stimulating property. However, there has been no study on the efficacy of Prasanamnom recipe in improving lactation. This was a quasi-experimental study that aimed to explore the efficacy of Prasanamnom recipe in increasing milk volume in postpartum mothers. Participants were 24 postpartum women (mean age, 29 years) who had normal delivery and gave breastfeeding at Phromphiram Hospital and were divided into two groups. Group 1 received Prasanamnom recipe, 100 mL orally, three times a day, before meals, and group 2 received standard care. The amounts of milk obtained with an automatic breast pump were measured after using a 15-minute pumping session on the 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 14th days after birth; and the increases in milk volumes within the groups were compared using paired t-test statistics. A comparison between groups with unpaired t-test statistic found that both groups after treatment had the same increase in milk volume. In the group receiving Prasanamnom recipe, there was a significant increase in milk volume from the 3rd postpartum day, and when compared between groups, the amount of milk volume 14 days postpartum was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001). In the Prasanamnom recipe group, one postpartum mother had nausea after taking the recipe. In summary, Prasanamnom recipe can increase breast milk volume in mothers after childbirth. More studies should be done on the mechanism of action of the Prasanamnom recipe formulation. Clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of this formulation should be continued.</p> Chawanut Pengsalud, Sareena Sungjun, Poungpech Pumcheaw, Puttirak Rakyong, Wandee Srivijarn, Wandee Yanpaisan, Bunleu Sungthong, Surapol Natakankitkul, Jindaporn Puripattanavong, Kulthanit Wanaratna, Monthaka Teerachaisakul, Krit Pongpirul, Kanita Pheangsalud Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Antiviral and Immunostimulant Activity of Terminalia chebula Retz. <p>N/A</p> Thongchai Sooksawate, Rutchanee Chantraket, Pakakrong KwanKhao Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Editorial Board <p>N/A</p> Vichai Chokevivat Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Instructions to Authors (Revised 2020) <p>N/A</p> Journal of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Policy and Ethics <p>N/A</p> Journal of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Contents <p>N/A</p> Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Editor's Note <p>N/A</p> Vichai Chokevivat Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Monograph of Select Thai Material Medica: SAMO THAI <p>N/A</p> Subcommittee on the Preparation of Monographs of Selected Thai Materia Medica Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Volume 2 (Chinese-Thai-English) (11) <p>N/A</p> Tawat Buranatawonsom, Wang Xiaotao, Suchada Anotayanonth Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Effectiveness of Justica gengarussa Burm. f. [Kraduk Kai Dam] Spray in Reducing Pain in the Neck-Shoulder Muscles <p>This quasi-experimental research used a double-blind randomized controlled trial approach. Its objective was to compare the effectiveness of <em>Justica gengarussa</em> Burm. f. (<em>kraduk kai dam</em>) spray in reducing scapular, neck, and shoulder pain between the experimental group receiving <em>J. gengarussa</em> spray and the control group receiving placebo spray, each with 30 patients. In particular, the patients who received treatment for musculoskeletal, neck, and shoulder pain were at the Thai Traditional Medicine and Spa Service Center, Satun Hospital. The pain was classified into four levels or more. The patients were 20 to 60 years old whose pain was not due to an accident or brain disorder. To reduce the impact on the study, a similar number of participants taking NSAIDs were randomly stratified to distributed both groups. Participants were given the spray once a day and their effects were assessed 30 minutes after the dose using a pain assessment scale and a cervical range of motion scale. Everyone was evaluated three times within 10 days. The results showed that both groups had a significant reduction in pain intensity and a significant improvement in the degree of neck declination and head tilt to both left and right (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). However, when comparing the treatment outcomes between the two groups of participants, the experimental group had lower pain levels and had the ability to move or the angle of the neck tilting the head left and right more significantly than the control group (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). <em>J. gengarussa</em> spray was effective in reducing pain and muscle stiffness as well as made it possible to increase the degree of scapular, neck, and shoulder movements. <em>J. gengarussa</em> has vitexin and apigenin as important substances, which exert the same effects as NSAIDs; and it is a common local plant that grows easily with no pests. Therefore, it should be promoted as an economic crop. Nevertheless, more studies are required in a larger population.</p> sarocha wongjirakitt, Nichapat Phokern Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Effectiveness of Herbal Steam Bath for Pain Relief in Patients with Lom Jab Pong Haeng Khao (Osteoarthritis of the Knee) <p>Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause of joint dysfunction, the world’s public health issue that is affecting people's quality of life. Knee osteoarthritis is referred to as Lom Jab Pong Haeng Khao in Thai traditional medicine, which has been found to be effective for pain relief when using herbal drugs or therapeutic massage combined with herbal compression. However, in a group of patients with Lom Chap Pong Haeng Khao, there had never been any herbal remedies with the formula of a compress ball combined with herbal steam bath. This experimental research aimed to investigate the efficacy of herbal steam bath in relieving knee pain in patients with Lom Chap Pong Haeng Khao. The study involved two groups of 31 participants each. The experimental group was given herbal steam bath, while the control group was given steam bath. Both groups received the steam treatment three times per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) with 15 minutes of steaming, 5 minutes of rest outside, and 15 minutes of steaming, for a total of 12 sessions over a four-week period. A general information questionnaire, pain visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM), and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were used to collect data, which were analyzed to determine percentages, means, and standard deviations, and hypothesis testing was carried out using repeated measures ANOVA. The results showed that the experimental group had lower pain (VAS) levels than the control group, and significantly lower than the control group (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) in weeks 3 and 4. The ROM of extension and flexion on the left side and extension on the right side increased from week 1 through week 4 in both groups, but not significantly, while the ROM of flexion on the right side of the experimental group significantly increased more than the control group (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) since weeks 1–3 and (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.005) in week 4. Based on the WOMAC data, the experimental group's pain level, joint stiffness, and physical function were better than before the trial. The comparative analysis of the mean scores between the groups after the experimentation showed that the experimental group had significantly lower pain level than the control group (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.01) and (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) in weeks 3 and 4, the joint stiffness was significantly less than the control group (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) and (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) in weeks 3 and 4, and the physical function was significantly better than the control group (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.01) and (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) in weeks 3 and 4. In sum, since the third week, herbal steam bath had been found to reduce pain and disease severity, and improve physical function; and heat is thought to change the viscoelastic properties of collagenous tissues, resulting in rising pain relief as well as ROM and WOMAC levels</p> preecha nootim, Maneerat Chuenjai, Pornchai Sawangwong, Pimlada Pongchaichanon, Amornrat Rachderm Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Inhalations on Memory and Emotion in Students <p>The aim of this study was to assess the effects of herb essential oil inhalations, or aroma therapy, on memory and emotion in the students of Rajamangala University of Technology Isan Sakonnakhon Campus, using a quasi-experimental research model. Sixty participants were purposively selected and then randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1, receiving rice paddy herb (<em>phak khayaeng</em>) oil; Group 2, receiving Indian borage (<em>hu suea</em>) oil; Group 3, receiving sweet basil oil; and Group 4 (control), receiving white or paraffin oil. All participants inhaled the essential oils for 3 minutes. Data were collected before and after inhalations from the memory test and the emotional assessment using the Bond-Ladder questionnaire; and descriptive data analysis was undertaken for inter-group comparisons, using chi-square and paired sample t-test. The results showed that: (1) the memory test scores before and after inhalation in the rice paddy herb oil inhalation group were different, while those in the other three groups using Indian borage, basil, and white oils did not show any differences (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05); (2) concerning emotional assessments before and after inhalations, the rice paddy herb oil group had higher alertness; the Indian borage oil group had higher relaxation; the basil oil group had better feelings of relaxation, attentiveness, interest, capability, happiness, friendliness, surrounding awareness, and socialization; while the white oil group did not show any emotional differences (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05); In conclusion, inhaling certain kinds of essential oils could stimulate a person's senses of arousal, relaxation, interest in what they were doing, efficiency, happiness, friendliness, interest in surroundings and socialization. Thus, further studies should be conducted to support the use of local herbs in health care.</p> Dutsadee Srithat, Thanyalak Uthathong, Pongsathorn Thongkasee, Namphon Pipatpaiboon Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Treatment Pattern, Safety and Effect of Ya Thamlai Phra Sumen Thai Traditional Medicine Formula on Patients’ Quality of Life <p>Thamlai Phra Sumen formula is one of the cannabis-based Thai traditional medicine formulas that has been approved by the Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine for treating patients with flatulence, muscle pain, muscle stiffness, and weakness in stroke patients. This study aimed to explore treatment patterns, adverse events, and quality of life of patients receiving Thamlai Phra Sumen formula. A retrospective chart review was conducted on medical records of patients visiting the Medical Cannabis Clinic at Thai traditional and integrated medicine hospitals from 1 October 2019 to 31 December 2020. Of all 239 eligible patients, 64.02% were male and their mean age was 48.48 ± 14.31 years. Indications of the formula were muscle pain (43.1%), paresis or paralysis (28.87%), and numbness (7.11%), insomnia (6.69%), osteoarthritis (5.86%) and Parkinson's disease (5.86%). The most common initial dosing regimens were 1 g twice a day (31.38%) and 1 g once a day (30.96%). The maintenance dose was 0.5–4 g/day. Most patients received 2 g/day (60.93%). Quality of life data collected using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire indicated that mean utility at treatment initiation was 0.80 ± 0.19 and that at month 3 was 0.86 ± 0.16 (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001). We observed 39 adverse events in 29 patients, all of which were mild and mostly included gastrointestinal irritation, hot flushes, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, and dry throat. In conclusion, Thalai Phra Sumen formula is a safe alternative for patients with several indications and it could also improve patients’ quality of life. </p> Apakorn Boontham, Preecha Nootim, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Changes in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Performance Related to Local Health Wisdom after Use of Training Program on Local Health Wisdom Performance among Village Health Volunteers, Sukhothai Province <p>This quasi-experimental research with a two-group pretest-posttest design aimed to study the changes in knowledge, attitudes, and performance (KAP) related to local health wisdom after using a training program on local health wisdom performance among Village Health Volunteers (VHVs) in Sukhothai province. The study involved 76 VHVs equally assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in the training program by applying the KAP theory whereas the control group was free of the intervention program. Data were collected using a questionnaire and then analyzed to determine frequency distribution, percentage, Chi-squared test, Fisher's Exact test, Paired Sample’s t-test, and Independent Sample’s t-test. The results revealed that the experimental and control groups' KAP levels were not different before using the training program. However, after participating in the training program, the experimental group showed a significantly higher level of KAP than before and the control group (<em>P</em> = 0.05). The findings indicate that the training program on local health wisdom can increase VHVs’ knowledge, attitudes, and performance related to such wisdom.</p> Apinya Chutitrakulchai, Phetcharat Kijsanayothin Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Situation of Cannabis Possession for Medical Use, in Surat Thani Province <p>The objectives of this research were to survey the situation of cannabis possession for medical use according to the Narcotics Act, No. 7, B.E. 2562 (2019), and to explore the perceptions and expectations related to the law on cannabis possession and medical cannabis among patients, the general public and competent officials in Surat Thani province. The cannabis possession forms from all patients submitted to the Surat Thani Provincial Public Health Office during February to May 2019 were reviewed. Thirty purposively selected respondents including patients, the general public, and competent officials were invited to participate in in-depth individual interviews. A total of 767 patients needed to use cannabis for relieving their symptoms or disease treatment. Approximately 80% of patients were male with an average age of 44.13 years (4–92 years). They had several cannabis forms in house, including oil extracts (59.84%), cannabis plants (57.11%), and dried cannabis (32.72%). Major symptoms or diseases were declared for cannabis possession including headache or migraine (38.85%), insomnia or stress (37.16%), and cancer (13.43%). In addition, most respondents received misinformation on cannabis from several channels which led to increasing use of cannabis without indication, cannabis addiction, and illegal possession. Therefore, relevant government agencies should hastily launch related measures such as increasing public education focusing on both risks and benefits of cannabis and illegal cannabis advertising control.</p> Utsani Eksuweeraphong Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Roles of Thai Traditional Medicine Practitioners in the Perspectives of Multidisciplinary Teams and Thai Traditional Medicine Practitioners: A Case Study of Community Hospitals in Phitsanulok Province <p>This descriptive research aimed to explore the roles of Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) practitioners according to the perspectives of multidisciplinary teams and TTM practitioners who are working in community hospitals in Phitsanulok province. The study respondents included 68 members of multidisciplinary teams and 12 TTM practitioners. An online questionnaire was used to collect data on the perspectives towards the roles of TTM practitioners and collaboration between TTM practitioners and the multidisciplinary teams. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. The results showed that, in the perspectives of the multidisciplinary teams, TTM practitioners played the most prominent role in providing Thai massage, herbal steam bath, and herbal compress, but played the least active role in providing TTM services in the parallel outpatient clinic. In contrast, TTM practitioners indicated that their most practical role was in the parallel outpatient clinic and the least practical role was providing TTM together with alternative medicine. Regarding collaborative efforts, the multidisciplinary teams revealed that patient referrals to modern physicians were most of the collaborative actions, while the TTM practitioners indicated that they mostly collaborated with the multidisciplinary teams in providing postpartum care. The perspectives of the multidisciplinary teams and the TTM practitioners towards the roles of TTM practitioners in providing TTM services were not consistent. Therefore, TTM practitioners should play their role according to the TTM philosophy and knowledge in order to raise the awareness and acceptance among members of the multidisciplinary teams.</p> Daoroong Komwong, Niruecha Sungpa, Luckkana Paopit, Nipon Kaewtai Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Wisdom of Isan Folk Massage <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the wisdom and to document the knowledge of massage for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) of Isan folk healers in Ubon Ratchathani and Si Sa Ket provinces, which have Thai-Lao and Khmer cultures, respectively. This qualitative research deployed in-depth interviews, observations, notes, and video/audio recording for collecting data from folk healers who had experiences in healing and were accepted by local residents. Content analyses were undertaken and then the data were returned to the folk healers for review and comments, based on which the data were revised as per folk healers’ wishes to disclose. The comparative data on anatomy positions were analyzed by an applied Thai traditional medicine practitioner and physical therapists. The results showed that, among 12 folk healers who treated KOA with massage, 6 were from Ubon Ratchathani and 6 were from Si Sa Ket – 9 male and 3 female, mostly elderly. The folk healers from both provinces revealed similar procedures for treating KOA, demonstrating a cultural mix that had slightly different combinations of treatment patterns, treatment methods, beliefs and pre-treatment rituals. The steps of KOA treatment consisted of (1) setting up a bowl of worship, (2) history taking, (3) physical examination, (4) massage, (5) post-massage assessment, and (6) advice on self-care. The folk healers emphasize holistic healing that includes the physical, mental, and spiritual aspects. Folk massage relaxes the ligaments and muscles involved in knee movement, improves blood circulation, increases joint flexibility, relieves pain, and improves the quality of life. This study also aimed to conserve folk wisdom and the information obtained can be used as a guide for the people or medical personnel to understand the folk medicine wisdom and apply it in providing integrated health care for KOA patients.</p> Kanyarat Peng-ngummuang, Jintana Junlatat, Ganniga Pumthong, Sureerat Butprom Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Bioactivities of Leucaena leucocephala Young Leaf Crude Extract <p><em>Leucaena leucocephala</em> (<em>krathin</em> in Thai) has been used in foods and traditional medicines for a long time. This study aimed to assess <em>L. leucocephala</em> young leaf extract for determining its total phenolic content, investigate the inhibition of Heinz body formation, hemolytic effect and protection of G6PD-deficient human erythrocytes against oxidative damage, antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxicity on leukemic cell lines. The results demonstrated that the total phenolic content of <em>L. leucocephala</em> young leaf extract was 325.6 ± 0.7 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dried extract (mg GAE/g extract). The extract could inhibit the Heinz body formation induced by acetylphenylhydrazine (APH) and prevent hemolysis damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in a concentration-dependent manner. The highest inhibition of Heinz body formation and protection values were about 12.8% and 4.3%, respectively, at the concentration 1,000 g/mL for G6PD-deficient erythrocytes. Regarding toxicity, KG-1a cell was more sensitive to the extract than Molt4 cell. The IC<sub>20</sub> of extract on KG-1a cell was 79.2 ± 0.5 <em>μ</em>g/mL, but the extract had no antimicrobial effect on bacteria from clinical samples. It is thus suggested that further <em>in vivo </em>studies should conducted on the effect of <em>L. leucocephala</em> young leaf extract to determine its non-toxic therapeutic doses for preventing oxidative stress and hemolysis in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes.</p> Rungkarn Sangkaruk, Pawaret Panyajai Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Antibacterial Activity against Common Human Pathogenic Bacteria of Edible Aquatic Plant Extracts <p>Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a big issue of mankind. It is thus necessary to discover new compounds with high antibacterial activity from natural sources for further development as a new effective antibacterial drug. In this study, 12 edible aquatic plants were collected from nature and fresh markets in Phitsanulok province based on their therapeutic uses in Thai traditional medicine, biological properties and secondary components in the edible parts. Absolute ethanol extraction of dried pieces of the plants was undertaken. Afterwards, the crude extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against five human pathogenic bacteria using agar-disc diffusion assay. Based on their antimicrobial activities, the plants were classified into five groups: 1) high activity – <em>Ludwigia</em> <em> adscendens</em> and <em>Limnocharis flava</em>; 2) quite high activity – <em>Nelumbo nucifera</em>, <em>Ipomoea aquatica</em>; 3) moderate activity – <em>Diplazium esculentum, Nymphaea pubescens, Hydrocotyle speciose</em>; 4) low activity – <em>Neptunia oleracea Sesbania speciose; </em>and 5) no activity – <em>Wolffia globosa</em>,<em> Eichhornia crassipes, Marsilea crenata. </em>The extracts had more inhibitory activity on Gram positive than Gram negative bacteria, ranging from high to low: <em>Staphylococcus pyogenes &gt; Streptococcus pneumoniae &gt; Salmonella typhimurium &gt; Staphylococcus aureus &gt; Escherichia coli</em>. The minimum inhibitory concentration testing by micro-dilution assay confirmed that <em>L. adscendens</em> more dramatically affected Gram positive <em>S. pyogenes</em> and <em>S. pneumoniae</em> (MIC 0.625 mg/mL) than Gram negative <em>S. typhimurium </em>(MIC 5 mg/mL), whereas <em>L. flava</em> showed a similar effect on tested bacteria (MIC 1.25 mg/mL). Taken together,<em> L. adscendens</em> and <em>L. flava </em>are promising aquatic sources for further application.</p> Chonnanit Choopayak, Chayaphon Sripannam, Pranee ์Nangngam Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Physico-Chemical Properties of Fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda) Crude Drug <p>The study on physico-chemical properties of fingerroot (<em>Boesenbergia rotunda</em> (L.) Mansf.), or <em>krachai</em> in Thai, crude drug, derived from the rhizomes and roots of the herb, aimed to establish the quality specifications of this medicinal plant. That was because there were no standard criteria for quality control of the crude drug in the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia, which is the national standard for herbal drugs. Seventeen fingerroot samples were collected during September 2014–January 2017. Chemical identification methods were developed and physico-chemical properties were evaluated. The methanolic extract of the crude drug gave a positive result with Shinoda’s test. Pinostrobin was detected when TLC analysis was performed on silica gel 60 using a mixture of dichloromethane-methanol (70:1) as mobile phase. The amounts of moisture and volatile oil were 7.83<u>+</u>0.96%, and 2.11<u>+</u>0.43% v/w, respectively. The amounts of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, 95% ethanol extractive, 50% ethanol extractive and water extractive were 6.68<u>+</u>0.88%, 1.20<u>+</u>0.73%, 12.63<u>+</u>4.31%, 15.78<u>+</u>2.54% and 17.63<u>+</u>3.35% w/w, respectively. Quality specifications of the fingerroot crude drug were set up as follows: flavonoids could be detected by Shinoda’s test; pinostrobin could be observed in the TLC analysis; the moisture content should not be higher than 9% v/w; the amounts of total ash, acid-insoluble ash should not be more than 7% and 1% w/w, respectively; the amounts of 95% ethanol extractive, 50% ethanol extractive and water extractive should not be less than 11%, 14% and 16% w/w, respectively; and the amount of volatile oil should not be less than 2% v/w. The results of this study will be proposed for inclusion as a monograph in the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia to be used as national reference standards of fingerroot crude drug.</p> Duangpen Pattamadilok, Apirak Sakpetch, Peradhamma Thiemthieprat, Sirikarn Thana-ariyaroj, Vilailuk Chuennangchee, Sorrapetch Marsud, Sakwichai Ontong Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Study of Andrographolide Contents in Different Parts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees at Different Harvesting Periods from Muak Lek, Saraburi <p><em>Andrographis paniculata</em> (Burm. f.) Nees (<em>fa thalai chon</em> in Thai) is a medicinal plant that naturally grows in Muak Lek district, Saraburi province. During the flowering stage (mature plant), its andrographolide contents in various parts, from high to low, namely leaves, aerial parts, stems and flowers are 5.11%, 4.90%, 0.68% and 1.90% w/w respectively; and in the pre-flowering stage (young plant) the contents are 3.65%, 2.95% and 1.03% w/w respectively. For the treatment of COVID-19 with <em>Andrographis</em> herbal drug, at the andrographolide dose of 180 mg daily for 5 days, 19.6 g of fresh leaves from the young plant or 14.0 g of fresh leaves from the mature plant should be taken. As for the decoction of aerial parts of the mature plant, 2.5 240-mL glasses should be taken per day. But tea from fresh leaves, which is drunk without the pulp, has a too low andrographolide content to achieve the conventional dose for COVID-19 treatment. The results of this study are useful for the public who want to use their own fresh <em>Andrographis</em> herb to treat COVID-19 by themselves. The proper amount has to be calculated based on the andrographolide content in the formula they use.</p> Sant Chaiyodsilp, Thamarat Bunsoong, Somwong Chaiyodsilp, Kwansri Sarankawin, Supassorn Kaewklin Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0700