https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/issue/feed Journal of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine 2023-12-29T23:58:39+07:00 Rutchanee Chantraket chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th Open Journal Systems <p> </p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/tci22.png" width="715" height="402" /></span></span></strong></p> <p><em><strong> ฟรีค่าธรรมเนียม...</strong></em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/jn022222.png" width="681" height="383" /></span></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/jn0033.png" width="605" height="174" /></span></span></strong></p> <p> <a title="วารสารนี้ครอบคลุมโดยวารสารการแพทย์แผนไทยและการแพทย์ทางเลือก" href="https://tpd.dtam.moph.go.th/index.php/journal01-ak/186-journal-01" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/jn004404.png" width="619" height="35" /></a></p> <p> </p> <p><img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/NEWS.gif" width="83" height="30" /> <img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/ลูกศร_Gif_(31).gif" width="54" height="36" /></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/jn-01.png" width="569" height="222" /></span></span></strong></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <img src="https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/jtam01/jtam1819-2.gif" width="272" height="385" /></span></span></strong></p> <p> </p> https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268048 Instructions to Authors (Revised 2023) 2023-12-29T23:47:29+07:00 Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268042 Monograph of Select Thai Material Medica: PHLU 2023-12-29T23:04:30+07:00 Subcommittee on the Preparation of Monographs of Selected Thai Materia Medica chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268043 Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Volume 2 (Chinese-Thai-English) (16) 2023-12-29T23:12:42+07:00 Tawat Buranatawonsom chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th Wang Xiaotao chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th Suchada Anotayanonth chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268044 A Seminar on the Thod Phapa Ceremonny (Buddhism’s robe-offering ceremony) “Plants in The Three Baskets” 2023-12-29T23:20:39+07:00 Phra Paisan Visalo chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268045 The Speech: International Day of Older Persons 2023 2023-12-29T23:26:50+07:00 Vichai Chokevivat vichaichok@yahoo.com <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/264229 Efficacy of 0.1% Chitosan-Curcuminoids Mouthwash in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus and Prevention of Disease Relapse 2023-10-10T17:07:31+07:00 Sirima Mahattanadul sirima.m@psu.ac.th Kanokporn Pangsomboon sirima.m@psu.ac.th Mustafa Waqar Mian sirima.m@psu.ac.th Sureerat Chelae sirima.m@psu.ac.th <p>Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of 0.1%<br />alcohol-free chitosan-curcuminoids mouthwash (CHI-CUR) which exerts anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity<br />in management of oral lichen planus (OLP) in comparison to a standard 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide mouthwash<br />(TA) to provide its clinical application as an alternative therapeutic agent for OLP.<br />Methods: A pilot single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry,<br />Prince of Songkla University, Thailand between February 2019 - April 2021. Participants were aged 18 years or<br />older with a confirmed diagnosis of OLP by an oral medicine practioner. Patients were randomly assigned to CHICUR or TA mouthwash at a dose of five milliliters for two min, four times a day for four weeks. Primary outcome<br />measures include a complete relief of erythematous lesions, a reduction in the number of C. albicans colonies<br />present in the oral cavity and the disease relapse.<br />Results: The result showed within the 4-week treatment course, that from the patients in the mild/<br />marked erythema group, three of six patients (50%) using TA mouthwash and two of eight patients (20%) using<br />CHI-CUR mouthwash had a complete relief of erythematous lesions, whereas patients in the ulceration group (where 3 patients used TA mouthwash and one patient used CHI-CUR mouthwash) had a decrease in site activity score level from 16 and 11 to 5 and 6 (mild/marked erythema), respectively. Both treatment groups provided<br />comparable efficacy in relief of pain or dryness of the oral cavity within the 2-week treatment course. For inhibitory<br />efficacy against candida colonization in the oral cavity, it was found at the fourth week after the treatment that all seven of the nine patients (77.8%) with candida infection in the CHI-CUR mouthwash treatment group had a<br />complete anti-candida response and eight of the ten patients (80%) with candida infection in the TA mouthwash<br />treatment group were found candidiasis in six of the ten patients (60%) with two of the ten (20%) having candida<br />superinfection at 4-weeks during the treatment course. Disease relapse was not observed after 6-months follow-up time in either intervention group.<br />Discussion: TA mouthwash exerted a high anti-inflammatory efficacy, but it has no antifungal activity. In<br />the present study, an alcohol free 0.1% CHI-CUR mouthwash was found to be as effective as 0.1% TA mouthwash in managing the signs and symptoms of OLP with a comparable time to remission state and a comparable efficacy in relief of pain or dryness of the oral cavity. On the contrary, a complete anticandidal response was found only in patients using CHI-CUR mouthwash. In addition, CHI-CUR mouthwash could be effective in decreasing the rate of symptom recurrence.<br />Conclusion and Recommendation: 0.1% alcohol-free CHI-CUR mouthwash may serve as a therapeutic<br />alternative in treating candida-associated OLP or OLP patients who have candida superinfection undergoing topical corticosteroids therapy.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/257226 Randomized-Controlled Trial to Compare the Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata Powder and Favipiravir for the Treatment of Mild COVID-19 2023-02-14T14:27:02+07:00 sirada puriwatthanapong sirada.pur@gmail.com Sant Chaiyodsilp sirada.pur@gmail.com Thammarat Bunsoong sirada.pur@gmail.com Paul Chaiyodsilp sirada.pur@gmail.com Yathip Tipasaharn sirada.pur@gmail.com Kamik Kulmanote sirada.pur@gmail.com Methi Sicharoen sirada.pur@gmail.com Wasini Mekvitoon sirada.pur@gmail.com Chompunuch Settapol sirada.pur@gmail.com Wirawan Polchan sirada.pur@gmail.com Jariya Songrak sirada.pur@gmail.com Kobkaew Burapha sirada.pur@gmail.com Jate Wantang sirada.pur@gmail.com Cholpatsorn Euathanikkanon sirada.pur@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction and objective:</strong> This study sought to determine the effectiveness of the <em>Andrographosis paniculata</em> (<em>fa thalai chon</em> in Thai) herb, in ground-powder form, in the treatment of COVID-19 compared to favipiravir, which is the current standard treatment regimen in Thailand.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study was a randomized controlled trial in subjects aged 18 to under 60 years, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by a positive RT-PCR test and were recruited from Muaklek Hospital from October 2021 to April 2022 classified as having mild disease. Patients were block randomized into three treatment groups. The first group was treated with ground powder of the aerial parts of <em>A. paniculata</em> (400 mg per capsule containing 11.35 mg of andrographolide) 180 mg/day for 5 days. The second group was treated with ground <em>A. paniculata</em> leaves (400 mg per capsule containing 24 mg of andrographolide) 180 mg/day for 5 days. The third group was treated with favipiravir at a dose of 3,600 mg on day 1 and 1,600 mg/day on days 2 to 5. Patients were followed up for 10 days, with worsening of clinical severity indicated by change in color category, new pulmonary infiltrations on x-ray, and viral load reduction on days 0, 5 and 10 as the primary outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: All 231 subjects were recruited to the study, with 77 assigned to each group. None of the groups had worsening of clinical severity indicated by change in color category. The difference in new pulmonary infiltrations between the groups was not statistically significant (p=0.07), nor was the elevation in liver enzymes (p=0.7). Viral loaded reduction did not differ significantly between each group. Log reduction on day 10 was 3.943 ± 1.354 in the first group, 3.943 ± 1.414 in the second group, and 3.994 ± 1.284 in the third group, which also showed no significant difference (p=0.996).</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong><strong> </strong>The efficacy of ground powder of both aerial parts and leaves of <em>A. paniculata</em> was not significantly different from favipiravir in the treatment of COVID-19, whether measured by pulmonary infiltrations on x-ray, change in clinical severity, or viral load reduction, throughout the follow-up period of on days 0, 5 and 10.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> Comparison of effectiveness between powders of both aerial parts and leaves of <em>A. paniculata</em> shows no significant differences from favipiravir in the treatment of mild COVID-19 apart from the cost, where <em>A. paniculata </em>is more accessible and affordable. The conclusion of the study supports the decision to use <em>A. paniculata</em> powder as first treatment for mild COVID-19<strong>.</strong></p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/263157 Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Lampang Model Herbal Clay Knee Mask and Standard Treatment for the Lom-Jab-Pong-Haeng-Khao Signs 2023-09-19T14:09:51+07:00 Wanna Damnoenssawat ttmlampang@gmail.com Ganokwun Buntuchai ganokwun.bun@gmail.com Suwanan ์Namboon ttmlampang@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction and objective:</strong> This study aimed to compare the effects of treatment on the Lom-Jab-Pong-Haeng-Khao signs (knee osteoarthritis) in patients who received a combination of massage, herbal compress and Lampang model herbal clay knee mask (herbal knee poultice), and standard treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study used a quasi-experimental pre-post design with experimental and control groups. The participants were patients who received treatment at Thai traditional medical services across 13 locations in Lampang province; and they were selected using the simple random sampling technique - 277 in the experimental group and 261 in the control group. Each of them was offered a voluntary choice to receive treatment. The patients in both groups received massage and herbal compress, whereas the experimental group received an additional treatment with the Lampang herbal knee poultice. The treatment course was five times. Pain points, knee malalignment, stiff patella, grinding knee sound, knee flexion and knee deformities were assessed. The McNemar test was used to analyze changes before and after treatment. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the improvement in signs between the experimental and control groups. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The participants in the experimental group were 65.23±7.71 years old and those in the control group were 64.91±7.42 years old. The symptoms of the two groups were not different before treatment; except for knee abnormalities, there was a significant improvement (p &lt; 0.05) after therapy in both groups. When comparing treatment outcomes between groups, there were significant differences. The experimental group experienced 2.46-fold greater pain relief with 3-point knee acupressure (p&lt;0.001), 2.38-fold greater improvement in knee malalignment (p=0.001), and a two-fold reduction in knee grinding noise (p=0.019) compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in the other signs.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: Herbal knee poultice has demonstrated efficacy in ameliorating knee pain, malalignment, and crepitus among study participants. This positive outcome is attributed to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cartilage-preserving properties inherent in the herbal medicine. Although the results of signs assessment in this study are binary data and cannot describe the details of signs levels, the study's highlight is the collection of data from real-world situations and the utilization of a large sample size. The obtained results can be utilized to strengthen policies promoting the Lampang herbal knee poultice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> Adjuvant treatment with the Lampang herbal knee poultice is an additional strategy for increasing treatment effectiveness by reducing pain, deflection, and noise in the knee joint.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/263064 The Study on Effectiveness of Gel Patches Containing Yapoktongnoikublohit Extract on Pain Relief in Primary Dysmenorrhea 2023-05-08T15:43:07+07:00 Nurihan Che-hah 622051178@tsu.ac.th Narita Suphon 622051008@tsu.ac.th Noor-asikeen Samae 622051177@tsu.ac.th Pirunrat Sae-Lim pirunrat.s@tsu.ac.th Sukanjana kamlungmak ksukanjana@tsu.ac.th <p><strong>Introduction and objectives: </strong>Yapoktongnoikublohit (YTK) recipe is in a traditional Thai medicine text used for pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Therefore, it is suitable for use as an essential ingredient in a gel patch formula to reduce painful periods. This study aimed (1) to determine the physical stability, (2) to evaluate skin irritation, (3) to test the efficacy, and (4) to evaluate users’ satisfaction with YTK-containing gel patch for pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The gel patch was prepared using <em>Cissampelos</em> <em>pareira</em> (<em>khruea ma noi</em> in Thai) extract, YTK extract, and gelatin. We used a patch test for skin irritation evaluation in 30 participants. The cross-over study was used to evaluate the efficacy of the gel patch with three treatments: YTK poultice, gel patch, and YTK gel patch. Menstrual pain levels were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The best formula contained 69.56% w/w <em>C</em><em>. </em><em>pareira</em> extract, 17.40% w/w YTK extract, and 13.04% w/w gelatin. The skin test did not show any skin irritation. The YTK patch could relief menstrual pain significantly (p-value ≤ 0.05) compared with other treatments. And the users’ satisfaction level with the YTK patch was high.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Previous studies have shown that the ingredients of the YTK formula were found to inhibit the process of prostaglandin synthesis, inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, and reduce inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> The YTK gel patch can be developed in the form that is convenient for use and can be carried easily. Moreover, it can also be further used by small-sized enterprises in preparing or producing other products.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/264170 Comparative Effectiveness of Cannabis versus Plai Ointments for Neck and Shoulder Pain Relief in Staffs of Renu Nakhon Hospital, Nakhon Phanom Province 2023-08-11T08:48:40+07:00 Wanchana Wongchachom tonicyong@gmail.com Sribud Srichaijaroonpong tonicyong@gmail.com Setthawut Chaiyathet tonicyong@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction and objective: </strong>Neck and shoulder pain is the common cause of chronic pain, affecting health status, quality of life, mood status and treatment costs. Currently, the herb “cannabis” is used in the form of oil and spray to treat pain in cancer patients. Nevertheless, clinical evidence to support the effectiveness of cannabis ointments for neck and shoulder pain relief is still lacking. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of cannabis versus plai ointments for neck and shoulder pain relief.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Participants were staff members of Renu Nakhon Hospital, Nakhon Phanom province that were outpatients at the Renu Nakhon Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine Clinic from November 2021 to March 2022. They were diagnosed with neck and shoulder pain by a Thai traditional medical doctor. Sixty participants who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were equally randomized into two groups by simple random sampling without replacement method. They applied the ointments at the neck and shoulders twice daily for 14 days. The levels of pain were determined by patients using numeric rating scale (NRS; score 0-10). Data records, general information and information/symptoms about the history of neck and shoulder pain, were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Mean NRS scores of the differences from baseline were compared within and between the two groups and analyzed using paired t-test and unpaired t-test, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Both cannabis and plai ointments could significantly reduce neck and shoulder pain. NRS scores were significantly lower than the baseline (P&lt;0.001) on day 7 in the cannabis group and day 3 in the phai group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups. No side effects were found in this study.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> In this quasi-experimental study, due to several limitations, especially the herbal odors, both sides of the experiment could not be concealed. The pain measurement scales also had limitations and patients’ individual topical applications might be different; and they could affect the drugs’ efficacies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> Cannabis ointments can relieve neck and shoulder pain; so it may be a herbal choice for external use for such condition<strong>.</strong><strong><em> </em></strong></p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/260976 Development of Foot Scrub Ball from Piper betle L. Leaf Extract 2023-08-25T10:34:55+07:00 Natta Choedchutirakul may.wrint@gmail.com Aumpol Bunpean natta@kmpht.ac.th Arissara Thananusak natta@kmpht.ac.th Chandchayaporn Tongdonkham natta@kmpht.ac.th Nattanicha Panjam natta@kmpht.ac.th <p><strong>Introduction and objective:</strong> The problem of foot odor has disturbed the personality and affects the self-confidence of the sufferers. At present, a rather few natural products have been used to suppress foot odor. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of the extract of <em>Piper betle</em> L. leaves (betel or <em>bai phlu</em> in Thai) against <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em>, to develop a betel extract scrub ball (exfoliating sphere) against foot odor, and to assess the scrub ball users’ satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Antibacterial activity was tested by disc diffusion method and broth microdilution. Then, the antibacterial concentration of betel leaf extract was used to develop a scrub ball formula. After biological stability testing, the product was trialed in 40 volunteers selected through purposive sampling. A satisfaction assessment form was used for data collection; and statistics used for data analysis included frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The betel leaf extract showed no zone of inhibition by the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 375 and 1,500 µg/mL, respectively, by broth microdilution method, and this concentration was added to the product. Formula 2 luffa scrub consisting of transparent glycerol soap base, polyethylene glycol, coconut oil, sodium lauryl sulfate, glydant, and acetic acid was the most stable at day 30 and showed an inhibition zone of 6.88 ± 0.26 mm. As a result, the overall satisfaction with the product by the study group was high ( = 4.32±0.54).</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> The <em>Piper betle</em> L. leaf extract contains phenol groups such as eugenol and chavicol. The extract was used at a concentration of 1,500 µg/mL as it was the lowest level capable of inhibiting bacterial growth. Additional ingredients in the scrub ball including glydant and polyethylene glycol contributed to enhancing the antimicrobial effect and maintaining stability against microbial contamination. The formula containing 26.25% transparent glycerin soap base is physically stable and exhibits germ-inhibiting effects when stored at room temperature for 30 days. The overall satisfaction with the pattern of usage was at a high level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The scrub ball made from the extract of <em>Piper betle</em> L. leaves could be used alternatively as a natural product to reduce foot odor. This effort helps enhance the use and value of local herbs and the information can be a guide for further commercial development of the herb.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/262479 Development of a Ready to Cook “Kaeng Liang Curry Paste” and the Concept of the Food Business 2023-07-05T15:40:41+07:00 Laiad Jamjan laiad@slc.ac.th Sirinya Chumtem laiad@slc.ac.th Chainarong Nagtes laiad@slc.ac.th Benjawan Thamthanarak laiad@slc.ac.th <p><strong>Introduction and objectives</strong>: The WHO has prescribed the criteria for individuals to consume 400-500 grams fruits and vegetables per day for health promotion and disease prevention purposes. However, the study found 71.1% of Thais aged 15 years and over consumed less than the criterion. Therefore, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation has campaigned for 50% Thai people to take more than 400 grams of fruits and vegetables daily. As well, the Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine has revived Thai food wisdom, announcing “<em>Kaeng Liang</em>” is a healthy food (spicy mixed veggie soup) with herbal properties and local vegetables in all seasons. Consistent with Thai beliefs and culture about eating food as medicine, the objectives of this study were (1) to explore the recipes of <em>Kaeng</em><em> Liang</em> from Thai wisdom; (2) to develop a prototype of <em>Kaeng</em><em> Liang</em> curry paste; (3) to evaluate the tasters’ preference of the ready-to-cook curry paste; and (4) study the business concept of the product from the tasters.</p> <p> <strong>Methods:</strong> The study had steps: (1) telling stories of <em>Kaeng</em><em> Liang</em> as Thai wisdom from local cooks in four regions; (2) developing a prototype <em>Kaeng</em><em> Liang</em> curry paste three times and getting the pastes evaluated for preference by nine tasters each time, totaling 27 tasters, then applying prototype paste 3 as a ready-to-cook curry for the tasters; and (3) managing healthy food exhibition, cooking <em>Kaeng</em><em> Liang</em> using the ready-to-cook curry paste, evaluating preference and giving business concepts by 84 tasters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> (1) <em>Kaeng</em><em> Liang</em> is well-known Thai food in all regions, consisting three equal main ingredients: shallots, galingale, shrimp paste with ground dried shrimp, and peppercorns as you like, and cooking with local vegetables of all seasons. (2) The ready-to-cook curry paste contains three main ingredients (a) shallots 25%, (b) galingale 20%, and (c) shrimp paste 15% with ground dried shrimp 30% and peppercorns 10%. (3) The tasters’ preferences were at the highest level for the taste, and at a high level for color, fragrance, appearance and appropriateness. (4) Suggested food business concepts includes (a) cook <em>Kaeng</em><em> Liang</em> as a healthy dish in the canteen; (b) publicize through various multimedia; (c) offer market promotion by selling, exhibition, and sample distribution; and (d) offer various products with a modern packaging design.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> The <em>Kaeng Liang</em> ready-to-cook curry paste provides medicinal properties, beneficial to health, and can be cooked with various types of vegetables. It helps people consume more vegetables and is more convenient to cook. It has been used to promote vegetable consumption in adults, the elderly and lactating mothers by selecting local vegetables which have health properties such as banana blossom for new moms after giving birth and <em>chiang-da</em> vegetable for diabetics. In addition, there should be guidelines for managing health/herbal food business for sale in hospitals.</p> <p><strong> Conclusion and recommendation: </strong><em>Kang Liang</em> is a healthy food that promotes vegetable consumption. Further studies should be conducted to determine the shelf life and nutritional values of the product, develop another ready-to-cook curry paste for cooking healthy dishes for various groups of patients, revitalize other healthy food/dishes based on Thai wisdom such as <em>Kaeng Pa</em> and <em>Kaeng Som</em>, and conduct trials on healthy food business and services in the hospital canteen.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/262319 Exploring the Enzymatic-Based Biological Activities of Kratom Leaves Extracts on Alpha-Amylase, Alpha-Glucosidase, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, and Cholinesterases 2023-08-11T08:41:43+07:00 Weerachai Pipatrattanaseree weerachai.p@dmsc.mail.go.th Chanisara Intareeya chanisara.i@dmsc.mail.go.th Sayan Koonnoot sayan.k@dmsc.mail.go.th Sakwichai Ontong sakwichai.o@dmsc.mail.go.th Thitiporn Thaptimthong thitiporn.t@dmsc.mail.go.th Sadudee Rattanajarasroj sadudee.r@dmsc.mail.go.th Siriwan Chaisomboonpan siriwan.c@dmsc.mail.go.th Attawadee Sae Yoon attawadee.sa@wu.ac.th <p><strong>Introduction and objective:</strong> <em>Kratom</em> leaves (<em>Mitragyna speciosa</em> Korth) have been an integral part of traditional Thai medicine and local folk medicine for a long time. In Thailand, it has recently been legalized for use as a medicinal plant or traditional Thai medicine. Consequently, <em>kratom</em> has gained popularity as a medicinal plant based on people's beliefs. This study aimed to investigate the enzymatic-based biological activities of <em>kratom</em> extracts, specifically their anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and anti-Alzheimer's disease properties, in order to provide scientific information for further development of <em>kratom</em> for medical use.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The <em>kratom</em> extracts used in this study were 95%, 70%, and 50% ethanolic extracts obtained from maceration, as well as an aqueous extract obtained from decoction method. All extracts were evaluated for inhibitory activities on alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase for anti-diabetes while its effect on angiotensin-I converting enzyme was examined for anti-hypertension. For the anti-Alzheimer's disease property, the inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study found that <em>kratom</em> extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and alpha-glucosidase enzyme. The 95% ethanolic extract exhibited the highest activity on butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, with the half inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) values of 64.40 ± 16.74 <em>µ</em>g/mL and 127.99 ± 6.15 <em>µ</em>g/mL, respectively. The 70% and 50% ethanolic extracts demonstrated comparable effects on alpha-glucosidase enzyme, with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 382.64 ± 16.18 <em>µ</em>g/mL and 409.43 ± 19.14 <em>µ</em>g/mL, respectively. However, all extracts were inactive on angiotensin-I converting enzyme and alpha-amylase enzyme. The content of mitragynine in the 95%, 70%, 50% ethanolic extracts and the aqueous extracts were 54.00 ± 1.17, 35.14 ± 0.64, 25.05 ± 0.05, and 18.08 ± 0.30 mg/g, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> <em>Kratom</em> extracts showed the most potential as butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and exhibited moderate activity in inhibiting alpha-glucosidase. The 95% ethanolic extract exhibited the highest mitragynine content, which was correlated with its ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes. This study was limited to explore only the <em>in vitro</em> enzymatic-based assays which require additional <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> assay models to conclude the possibility of using <em>kratom</em> as a medicine for patients or as dietary supplement.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> The findings of this study suggested the inhibitory effects of <em>kratom</em> extracts on acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and alpha-glucosidase. Moreover, further <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> assay models as well as clinical trials are necessary to confirm its potential for development as a traditional medicine, or dietary supplement.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/263357 Comparison of Cytotoxic Activity against Gastrointestinal Cancer Cell Lines of Basella alba L. and Basella rubra L. Extracts 2023-05-08T16:15:00+07:00 Yanisa Ruaysup yanisa.nk1424@gmail.com Srisopa Ruangnoo srisopar@tu.ac.th Arunporn Itharat iarunporn@yahoo.com <p><strong>Introduction and objective:</strong> <em>Basella alba</em> L. and <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>rubra</em> L. (<em>phak plang</em> in Thai) are medicinal plants in many Asian countries, and they have been traditionally used as food and traditional medicine for treatments of constipation and peptic ulcer. This study aimed to investigate and compare cytotoxic activity against gastrointestinal cancer cell lines of <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>alba</em> and <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>rubra</em> extracts.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The extractions of <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>alba</em> and <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>rubra</em> were undertaken by maceration with 95% ethanol and then by the partition extraction method. All extracts were examined for cytotoxic activity against gastrointestinal cancer cell lines namely oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB), gastric carcinoma (KATO III), colorectal adenocarcinoma (SW480 and LS 174T), cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M156), and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2), and normal cell lines including HaCat (immortal human epidermal keratinocytes) by SRB assay.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>alba</em> crude extract showed higher cytotoxic activity against gastrointestinal cancer cell lines than <em>B. rubra</em>. The <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>alba</em> crude extract showed cytotoxic activity against KB, KATO III, SW480 and KKU-M156 cell lines with IC<sub>50</sub> of 39.31, 33.82, 31.54, 33.79 <em>µ</em>g/mL, respectively, while LS 174T, and Hep G2 cell lines with IC<sub>50</sub> of 63.06 and 59.63 <em>µ</em>g/mL. The <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>alba</em> crude extract also showed the highest selectivity index (SI) between HaCaT cell lines against cancer cell lines including KB, KATO III, SW480, and KKU-M156 with SI of 2.39, 2.78, 2.98, and 2.79, respectively. In addition, the chloroform mix ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of fresh <em>B. alba</em> showed good cytotoxic activity against KB, KATO III, LS 174T, KKU-M156, and HepG2 cell lines except the SW480 cell lines, that the chloroform fraction of ethanolic extract of fresh <em>B. rubra</em> had higher activity. Interestingly, the chloroform fraction of ethanolic extract of fresh <em>B. rubra</em> showed an SI value better than <em>B. rubra</em>.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>This research aimed to investigate and compare of cytotoxic activity against gastrointestinal cancer cell lines of <em>B</em><em>.</em><em> alba</em> and <em>B</em><em>.</em><em> rubra</em> extracts by SRB assay. The results showed that the <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>alba</em> crude extract had more potent cytotoxic activity (SI &gt; 2) against gastrointestinal cancer cells than <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>rubra</em> and showed moderate cytotoxic activity against KB, KATO III, SW480 and KKU-M156 cell lines, as established by NCI. Further extraction found that the chloroform fraction of <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>rubra</em> crude extract had potent cytotoxic activity against KATO III, SW480, KKU-M156, and LS 174T about 3–6 times more than the <em>B</em><em>. </em><em>alba</em> crude extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> The extraction of <em>B. rubra</em> by maceration with 95% ethanol and fractionated with chloroform showed the best potential cytotoxic activity against gastrointestinal cancer cells. These results provide basic information about the biological activity including cytotoxic activity against gastrointestinal cancer of <em>Basella</em> species extracts. However, further investigations on chemical markers, <em>in vivo</em> pharmacological activity testing, and toxicity testing are needed for future development as a product.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/263887 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Shallot (Allium ascalonicum) Extract in Lablae District, Uttaradit Province 2023-08-11T09:22:46+07:00 Nicharee Jaikhamwang jkwnicharee@outlook.com Thananchai Juapprasop jkwnicharee@uru.ac.th Natkritta Boonprakob jkwnicharee@uru.ac.th <p><strong>Introduction and objective</strong>: Shallot (<em>Allium ascalonicum</em> L.) is an economic crop in Uttaradit province. It is an herb that has important compounds and antioxidant properties as well as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. This experimental research aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of shallot extract in Uttaradit’s Lablae district.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Shallot samples were collected from Lablae district for the study of their botanical characteristics and quality. Shallot extraction was undertaken with such solvents as water, ethanol and methanol. The crude extracts were analyzed for the amounts of phenolic compounds and quercetin, and tested for antioxidant and antibacterial activities.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The percent yields of shallot extracts from water, ethanol and methanol extraction were 9.07%, 8.86% and 11.53%, respectively; and the amounts of phenolic compounds obtained were 33.67, 41.29 and 13.67 mg/mL, respectively. The yields of quercetin were 0.10±0.01, 0.08±0.01 and 0.14±0.01 %w/w of DW, respectively, while the percent inhibitions (DPPH scavenging activity) were 64.09%, 41.53% and 60.89%, respectively. The analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) showed that the water shallot extract had the best antibacterial activity with MIC and MBC for <em>S. aureus</em> DMST at 10 and 10 mg/mL, <em>S. epidermidis</em> DMST 15505 at 2.5 and 2.5 mg/mL and <em>B. cereus</em> DMST 5040 at 5 and 5 mg/mL, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: The water shallot extract had the best activity against gram-positive bacteria found on the human skin and the best antioxidant activity that may be attributed to compounds other than phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Although they are present in small quantities, such additional compounds may contribute to enhancing the antioxidant properties.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> Shallot extract had antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity against <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>S. epidermidis</em>, and <em>B. cereus</em>. This knowledge can be utilized for further development of herbal products with an additional value for shallots from Uttaradit province.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/262603 Antioxidant and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activities of Ya-Kae-Lom-Utthang- Ka-Ma-Va-Ta Thai Traditional Medicine Formula in ATDC-5 Cells 2023-04-24T10:41:03+07:00 Waluga Plaingam waluga.p@rsu.ac.th Somporn Phonkrathok somporn.ph@rsu.ac.th Sanhajutha Puangmala sanhajutha.p@rsu.ac.th Moragot Chatatikun moragot.ch@wu.ac.th <p><strong>Introduction and objectives</strong><strong>: </strong>Knee osteoarthritis (KOA), a disabling joint inflammatory disease, is caused by nitric oxide (NO) established as one of its major causes. Many previous studies have shown that bioactive compounds and plant extracts can exhibit chondroprotective effects by suppressing the expression of NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)<strong>.</strong> The objectives of this research were to determine total phenolic content and total flavonoid content, and investigate antioxidant and inhibitory effects of nitric oxide by 95% ethanolic extract of Ya Kae Lom Utthangkhamawata (UKLU) formula in ADTC-5 mouse chondrogenic cells.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined by folin ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also determined using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. Inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) used as the assay for anti-inflammation in ATDC-5 cells. In finally, the MTT assay was used to measure cytotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> In the UKLU formula extract, 479.33±2.08 mg GAE/g and 177.89±3.02 mg GAE/g of total phenolics and total flavonoids, respectively, were found. In the formula extract’s antioxidant activity testing, the IC<sub>50 </sub>values were 137.72 µg/mL for DPPH method and 27.28 µg/mL in ABTS method. And finally, the formula extract was further tested for anti-inflammatory via inhibition of nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity in ATDC-5 cells. The ethanolic extract of the formula showed the nitric oxide inhibitory activities with the IC<sub>50</sub> value at 41.88 µg/mL.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong><strong>: </strong>This study provides scientific information on YKLU formula’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via NO inhibition effects, which are associated with KOA. The effects might mainly result from phenolic compounds and flavonoids with such antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> The present investigation indicates that the YKLU formula has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Further studies should be carried out on the feasibility of using the formula in treating KOA in the future.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/260239 Callus Induction and Rosmarinic Acid Production of Helicteres isora L. 2022-12-20T12:17:36+07:00 Sorrapetch Marsud sorrapetch.m@dmsc.mail.go.th Tippawan Prakmanon Sorrapetch.m@dmsc.mail.go.th Sekrachatakorn Buabao Sorrapetch.m@dmsc.mail.go.th kotchaporn Chotmanotham Sorrapetch.m@dmsc.mail.go.th Paparvadee Suchantaboot Sorrapetch.m@dmsc.mail.go.th Korravit Somkid Sorrapetch.m@dmsc.mail.go.th Siriwan Chaisomboonpan Sorrapetch.m@dmsc.mail.go.th <p><strong>Introduction and objective:</strong><em> Helicteres isora</em> L. is a medicinal plant (known in Thai as <em>po bit</em>) that exhibits numerous pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and hypolipidemic activities. The cultivation of <em>H. isora</em> has inconsistent amounts of active substances due to many factors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a suitable medium to induce rosmarinic acid (RA) substance from <em>H. isora</em> callus using a plant tissue culture system.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Firstly, the sterile lateral bud of <em>H. isora</em> was used and cultured on Marashige and Skoog (MS) medium which contains plant growth regulator, thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for 45 days. The RA was determined in callus using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The treatment of lateral bud with MS medium containing 0.4 mg/L TDZ and 0.3 mg/L NAA for 45 days could induce <em>H. isora</em> callus at 2.9±0.58 cm in diameter. The RA concentration was 0.3939% in dry weight and showed approximately 4.5 times higher than those of the natural sources.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>Callus culture can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the desired active compounds in the herbal plant. In addition, it can reduce various factors that are caused by extracting substances directly from plants, such as reduced time, cost, including the contamination of chemicals, heavy metals, and various microorganisms. Therefore, the substances obtained from this process are of high quality and suitable for further use in both the medical and the herbal plant extract industry.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> This suitable medium is for callus culture of RA production. However, this study was based on the basic callus culture technique only. Increasing the efficiency of RA production can be done by adding other stimulants.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268028 Editorial Board 2023-12-29T11:18:30+07:00 Vichai Chokevivat vichaichok@yahoo.com <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/262281 Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation and Stability Properties of Ya Thappayathikhun Formula Extract 2023-04-03T15:44:17+07:00 kanoknan lasongmuang kanoknan@scphpl.ac.th Naruemon Thianwan Kanoknan@scphpl.ac.th Apinya Lomthaisong Kanoknan@scphpl.ac.th Wudtichai Wisuitiprot Kanoknan@scphpl.ac.th <p><strong>Introduction and objectives: </strong><em>Ya Thappayathikhun</em> is a Thai traditional medicinal (TTM) formula commonly used to treat numbness due to diabetes. This research aimed to investigate the pharmacological properties of the TTM formula especially its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as extract stability. The researchers sought to prove the pharmacological properties of this medicinal formula since no previous pharmacological studies had been conducted on it. Additionally, they aimed to confirm that the medicinal formula possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which can help slow down cellular deterioration, aligning with the traditional use of this formula to alleviate symptoms such as muscle pain, chest pain, numbness, loss of taste, and insomnia.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This research was conducted in a laboratory setting and involved the study of antioxidant properties using the DPPH assay, anti-inflammatory properties using the Nitric Oxide method, and an examination of the formula's stability with Piperine as the main compound, assessed through High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at temperatures of 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C over durations of 3, 6, 9, and 12 days.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Antioxidant properties were studied using the DPPH assay at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.312, and 0.156 mg/mL, at a light wavelength of 515 nm. The formula exhibited antioxidant properties with an effective concentration of 0.8859 mg/mL. Anti-inflammatory properties were studied using the Nitric Oxide inhibition method at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.313, 0.156, 0.078, 0.039, 0.020, and 0.098 mg/mL, at a light wavelength of 515 nm. The formula was able to inhibit the Nitric Oxide process with an effective concentration of 1.59 mg/mL. The stability of the medicinal formula was assessed at temperatures of 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C, for durations of 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. The results revealed that the formula can be stored at 50°C for 7 days, 60°C for 6 days, 70°C for 4 days, 80°C for 3 days, 25°C for 23 days, and 30°C for 16 days.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>The study demonstrates that the medicinal formula possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as evidenced by the DPPH assay and Nitric Oxide inhibition method results. These properties align with the traditional use of the formula in alleviating various symptoms, such as chest pain, muscle pain, numbness, loss of taste, and insomnia. Furthermore, the stability study provides valuable information for determining the formula's shelf life and appropriate storage conditions. It is clear that the formula can be stored for different durations at various temperatures, ensuring its efficacy and safety over time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation: </strong>This research provides scientific support for the traditional use of the Thai medicinal formula and highlights its potential benefits in addressing oxidative stress and inflammation, essential aspects of maintaining overall health. Further studies should explore additional variables and extraction methods to provide more comprehensive and accurate results.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268030 Policy and Ethics 2023-12-29T11:31:44+07:00 Vichai Chokevivat vichaichok@yahoo.com <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/263706 Herbal Extract Preparation Process 2023-07-19T17:02:06+07:00 Duangpen Pattamadilok duangpen.p@dmsc.mail.go.th <p><strong>Introduction and objective:</strong> Herbal extract preparation process is a process of obtaining the desired compound or removing the undesired compound from a medicinal plant raw material. This article aims to describe the fundamental factors affecting the extract quality and the extraction processes.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Literature review of relevant articles from books and journals was performed, analyzed and concluded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Extraction process consists of four steps: having the solvent penetrate through the plant matrix, dissolving the plant’s active compound in the solvent, letting the compound diffuse from the matrix, and collecting the plant extract. The fundamental factors affecting the extract quality are plant, extraction solvent and extraction technique. This article describes such factors and methods of plant extraction including maceration, infusion, decoction, percolation, reflux, soxhlet extraction, enfleurage, hydrodistillation, steam distillation, mechanical extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE).</p> <p><strong> Discussion: </strong>There are some factors affecting the plant extraction process. The selection of a suitable extraction method must concern those factors. Good preparation practice should be performed to obtain the extract that meets its intended use. Pre-extraction process, raw material quality, suitable processing method should be considered.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong> This article has collected and made a conclusion on the important information about plant extraction process from many sources. The information will be useful for entrepreneurs and others interested; and it could be applied to extracting herbal materials to yield quality extracts.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/265188 Selection of Thai Traditional Medicine Formulas for Treatment of Musculoskeletal Disorders 2023-08-29T14:37:11+07:00 Artina Pinta finny_ff@hotmail.com Suppachai Tiyaworanant suptiy@kku.ac.th Somchai Suriyakrai finny_ff@hotmail.com <p><strong> Introduction and objective</strong>: Thai traditional medicine textbooks contain records of herbal formulas used to treat various musculoskeletal conditions. However, there is a lack of organized knowledge regarding these herbal formulas. This study aims to compile and select herbal formulas used to treat musculoskeletal conditions and identify potential candidates for further development of external medications. <strong> Methods</strong>: Eight items of Thai traditional medical documents were studied.<strong> Results</strong>: A total of 252 herbal formulas used for musculoskeletal conditions were identified, of which 46 were suitable for external use. Among these, 10 formulas are composed of crude drugs are readily available in the market and have clear botanical origins, and four formulas are suitable for long-term storage: two from the stone inscription of Wat Phra Chetuphon (Wat Pho) and two from the Textbook of King Narai’s Traditional Medicines. <strong> Discussion</strong>: The four formulas hold promise for further research and development as traditional medications for treating musculoskeletal conditions in the future.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> <strong>and recommendation</strong>: With the selection of Thai traditional medicine formulas for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, the basic information on Thai traditional medicine textbooks has been obtained. The selected traditional medicine recipes should therefore be used for further study in the future.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268046 Piper betle L. 2023-12-29T23:32:08+07:00 Thongchai Sooksawate Thongchai.S@pharm.chula.ac.th Rutchanee Chantraket chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th Pakakrong Kwankhao pakakrong2@gmail.com <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268032 Contents 2023-12-29T11:35:09+07:00 Vichai Chokevivat vichaichok@yahoo.com <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268047 Index 2023-12-29T23:44:30+07:00 Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine chantra.i@dtam.mail.go.th <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JTTAM/article/view/268035 Editor's Note 2023-12-29T12:04:11+07:00 Vichai Chokevivat vichaichok@yahoo.com <p>N/A</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023