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This study on physico-chemical characteristics of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry)
aimed to obtain data for establishing the quality specification of clove since there had been no standard criteria for this medicinal herb in Thailand. Fifteen samples of clove were collected from August 2016 to March 2017. Chemical identification and physico-chemical properties were studied. The methanolic extract of clove exhibited positive results with Liebermann Burchard test and 1% ferric chloride solution. TLC analysis was performed using silica gel GF254 and a mixture of hexane-acetone (10:1). Spots of eugenol were observed at the Rf value of 0.43. Physico-chemical characteristics exhibited the water and volatile oil contents of 6.06 ± 1.07 and 25.38 ± 3.27% v/w, respectively. The contents of total ash, acid insoluble ash, 95% ethanol extractive and water extractive were 5.70 ± 0.20, 0.05 ± 0.04, 21.17 ± 1.56 and 25.27 ± 0.98%w/w, respectively. Thus, quality specification of clove could be established. The watercontent should not be more than 7%v/w. The contents of totalash and acid in soluble ash should be not more than 7% and 1% w/w, respectively. The contents of 95% ethanol extractive and water extractive should not be less than 19% and 23% w/w. The content of volatile oil should not be less than 23% v/w. Chemical identification using TLC, eugenol must be detected. Furthermore, chemical identification of clove oil by GCMS exhibited eugenol as the main component. The results of this study have led to the establishment of a monograph of Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia to be used as a reference standard of Thailand.
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