The Thai Traditional Medicine Ephemeris

Main Article Content

Vadhana Jayathavaj


The ephemeris in Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) expresses in the time periods of the day (3 or 4 periods for day time and night time), days of the week (1-7 Sunday to Saturday), moon phase (the day of waning or waxing), months like in Thai lunar calendar (1,2,..., 12 or aye, yi,..., twelve), seasons of the year (in 3 seasons, 4 seasons, and 6 seasons), the calendar in TTM has their own unique characters. After evaluated official TTM text books, the TTM calendar is different from the Thai lunar calendar especially in dividing sub-seasons of a year. Determined by the Samuthanvinijjaya scriptor, each sub-season has an equal length of time in the year and explained each sub-season with the waning waxing phase of the moon which seems like the terminology in Thai lunar calendar (without mention about the second 8 lunar month). This makes misunderstanding that the TTM calendar is the same as the Thai lunar calendar. The TTM ephemeris using the Sun path around the Earth (geocentric) in one year determines the sub-seasons by equally division for 3 seasons, 4 seasons, and 6 seasons and position of the Sun in Zodiac signs correspond to both Thai astrology and current astronomical practices.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Review Article


1. Tamra Phra Osod Phra Narai. Pranakhon: Sophinpipattanakorn; 1917. p. 23. (in Thai).
2. Picheansoonthon C, Chavalit M, Jeerawongsa V. The Explaination of King Naraiûs Thai Pharmacopoeia (Drug Formulary). Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing; 2001. 777 p. (in Thai).
3. Bureau of the Protection of Traditional Thai Medicine Knowledge, Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine. That Pra Narai Inscription (PalmLeaf). Bangkok: Printing Press of the War Veterans Organization of Thailand under Royal Patronage of His Majesty the King; 2012. 180 p. (in Thai).
4. Phraya Pisanuprasartvej. Vejjasuksa (Medical Education). 3rd ed. Pranakhon: Rong Pimp Chan Heng; 1925. 125 p. (in Thai).
5. The Ancient Medical School of Wat Phra Chetuphon (Wat Poh). Phat Sart Songkhroa Vol 2. n.p.; 1961. 242 p. (in Thai).
6. Thai Language Institution, Academic Department, Mistry of Education. Phatsart Songkroa. Bangkok: Kurusapa Printing Ladphrao; 2000. 994 p. (in Thai).
7. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gregorian calendar. [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2016 Dec 29]; Available from:
8. The Gregorian Calendar. Time and Date AS 1995-2016. [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2016 Dec 29]; Available from:
9. Plainoi S. Songkran. 2nd ed. Bangkok: Pikanesha Printing Center; 2004. 159 p. (in Thai).
10. Department of Cultural Promotion. New Year Day and Days in Lunar Calendar. [Internet].2013 [cited 2016 Dec
29]; Available from: subculture3/images/stories/Artist/Vansoomkran/picture/
1/1.2%20new%20year.pdf. (in Thai).
11. Calendar Act B.E. 2483. Published in Government Gazette, Vol. 57, p.419-22 (17 Sep 1940). (in Thai).
12. Tangkanasingha P. Khamatiby Atikamas-Atikavara (The Explainnation of Intercalation). Bangkok: Sirasrom Karnpimp; 1972. 84 p. (in Thai).
13. Bunnag K (Chaophraya Thiphakorawong Mahakosathibodi). Kijjanukij Book. Bangkok: Kurusapa Printing Ladphrao; 1971. 249 p. (in Thai).
14. Tittiranonda B (Phraya Boriraksa Vejjakarn). Principle of Intercalation. Phranakhon: Mahamakut Royal College Printing; 1956. 58 p. (in Thai).
15. Boonnak T (Major General). Expert in Ephemeris Computation. Interview, 2009 Apr 22. (in Thai).
16. Meeus J. Astronomical Algorithms. 2nd ed. Virginia: Willmann Bell; 1998. 477 p.
17. Aaangkaew T. Astrological Calendar B.E. 2464-2563. Bangkok: Rong Pimp Auksorn Thai; 800 p. (in Thai).
18. Aaangkaew T. The Comprehensive Suriyayatra scripture. Pranakhon: Mahamakut Royal College Printing; 1954. 124 p. (in Thai).
19. Hydrographic Department, Royal Thai Navy. The History of Standard Time Keeping of Thailand. [Internet]. [cited 2016 Dec 30]. Available from: https://www.hydro. (in Thai).
20. Using Standard Time Royal Decree. Published in Government Gazette, Vol. 6, p. 273-9. (21 Mar 1919). (in Thai).
21. Thai Meteorological Department. Meteorological Book. [Internet]. 2014 [cites 2016 Dec 30]; Available from: (in Thai).
22. The Ancient Medical School of Wat Phra Chetuphon (Wat Poh). Inscription Phatmacopoeia in Wat Poh. Bangkok: Numaugsorn Karnpimp; n.d. 352 p. (in Thai).
23. The Fine Arts Department, The National Library of Thailand. Medicine Aid Treatise of RAMA V Vol. 1-2. Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing; 1999. 916 p. (in Thai).
24. The Ancient Medical School of Wat Phra Chetuphon (Wat Poh). Phat Sart Songkhroa Vol 1. n.p.; 1961. 282 p. (in Thai).
25. The Ancient Medical School of Wat Phra Chetuphon (Wat Poh). Phat Sart Songkhroa Vol 3. Bangkok: Numauksornkarnpimp; n.d. 119 p. (in Thai).
26. Kittikajorn A (Khun Sophit Bunnaraksana). Ancient Medical Thai Textbook. Phra Nakhon; 1961. p. 102-3. (in Thai).
27. Foundation of Restoration and Promotion of Thai Traditional Medicine Ayuravej Vidhyalaya (Jivaka Kormarpaj). Tamra Karn Phat Thai Derm (Phat Sart Songkhroa) Chabab Pattana Section 1. 2nd ed. Bangkok: Rongpimp See Thai; 1998. 109 p. (in Thai).
28. Pattanasiri P, Rekhanites L, Panjavorakul T. Astrological Ephemeris B.E. 2552. Bangkok: Rau.Sau. 221 Publication; 2008. 400 p. (in Thai).
29. Hong Hora Srimahapoh. Astrological Calendar 150 years (from B.E.2425 to 2575). Nonthaburi: Taweepimdee; 2005.530 p. (in Thai).
30. Jayathavaj V. Diabetics Classified under Thai Traditional Wisdom Research Report. Instructional Support and Development Center, Rangsit University; 2010. 168 p. (in Thai).
31. Samudavanija S. Kledlup Mahataksa. Bangkok: Sivasrom KarnPimp; 1970. 578 p. (in Thai).
32. Plainoi S. Twelve Zodiac. 3rd ed. Bangkok: Reuenkaew Karnpimp; 2004. 222 p. (in Thai).