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The study aimed at analyzing and synthesizing experimental research on cognitive training in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and older adults with dementia in Thailand. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies published locally and internationally that met inclusion criteria were selected. Selected experimental studies that was designed with a control group and randomized for experimental and quasi-experimental studies which studied the method of cognitive training in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and older adults with dementia. Search the research report from November 2009 to September 2018. Researcher and co researchers independently assessed the quality of research using tools developed from the Joan Briggs Institute and extracting research data using the detailed research report adapted from Supaporn Playrahan. In which, the selected research met the specified criteria.
Results revealed that 17 studies met the inclusion criteria, including 2 studies in level A (Experimental research) and 15 studies in level B (Quasi-experimental research). The cognitive training programs consisted of 3 types: 1) cognitive stimulation, 2) reminiscence, and 3) integrated type (cognitive stimulation and reminiscence). For duration and frequency of these three groups, it was found out that most of the trainings were implemented for 6 times, lasting 45 - 60 minutes/time. From 17 studies most of the programs could improve memory, increase cognitive ability and promote social interaction. There is one research that used the form of cognitive stimulation which did not show change of memory between the experimental group and the control group. The activity forms that were given to both groups were similar. However, it was found that the duration of the activities was different, with MCI group taking longer to train each time. This is probably due to older adults with MCI and older adults with dementia, had different symptoms. In older adults with MCI group had the ability to perform many tasks by themselves. While older adults with dementia had memory problems with recent events and the ability to do various activities became slower.
Results of the study can be used the cognitive training styles to develop guidelines in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and those with dementia by applying the results to suit with their contexts. Also the results can be used as evidence for improvement of nursing care quality. In addition, health team and researchers can also conduct research as a further study.
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