The invention of the mindfulness assessment scale


  • Orawan Silpakit


assessment, mindfulness, scale


Objective  To invent the mindfulness assessment scale according to 4 Satipattanas.

Materials and methods  There were 3 steps. First, the documentary review on mindfulness in Buddhist Theravada and Kabat-Zinn concepts for item generation. Second, the psychometric property analyses namely content validity, reliability, structural validity discriminant and concurrent validity and finally, the pilot study. There were 4 groups of sample :- 1) the personnel group (n=41), 2) patients attending Srithanya Hospital and participants in the meditation course at the Young Buddhists Association of Thailand (n=250), 3) the multidisciplinary team (n=160) and 4) caregivers of psychiatric cases (n=159). Data collection started from May to October 2014.  Descriptive statistic was used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA, CFA) by Mplus program were demonstrated. Discriminant validity with Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD)  and concurrent validity with Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS) by using Pearson’s correlations were analyzed.

Results The initial MAS consisted of 30 items, then 25 items were retained by experts’ opinions.  From EFA in the sample group 2, 15 items were retained and divided into 3 domains  i.e., knowing, intention and automatics.  Of these,  4 items were classified as the body, 2 as the feeling, 6 as the citta and 3 as the dharma. The second order model from CFA in the sample group 3, showed acceptable of fit indices. Cronbach’s alpha for the 15- item questionnaire and each domain were 0.67- 0.82. The MAS was significantly negative related to HAD. The concurrent validity with PHLMS on aware part was acceptable. The pilot study in caregivers of psychiatric cases showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity.

Conclusion  The 15-item sati assessment scale containing the essence of Satipatthanas had a high consistency and validity which approved by extensive psychometric assessment among  groups of  personnel, beginners of meditation practice and caregivers of psychiatric patients.


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