Antibacterial Activity against Common Human Pathogenic Bacteria of Edible Aquatic Plant Extracts

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Chonnanit Choopayak
Chayaphon Sripannam
Pranee ์Nangngam

Abstract

Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a big issue of mankind. It is thus necessary to discover new compounds with high antibacterial activity from natural sources for further development as a new effective antibacterial drug. In this study, 12 edible aquatic plants were collected from nature and fresh markets in Phitsanulok province based on their therapeutic uses in Thai traditional medicine, biological properties and secondary components in the edible parts. Absolute ethanol extraction of dried pieces of the plants was undertaken. Afterwards, the crude extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against five human pathogenic bacteria using agar-disc diffusion assay. Based on their antimicrobial activities, the plants were classified into five groups: 1) high activity – Ludwigia  adscendens and Limnocharis flava; 2) quite high activity – Nelumbo nucifera, Ipomoea aquatica; 3) moderate activity – Diplazium esculentum, Nymphaea pubescens, Hydrocotyle speciose; 4) low activity – Neptunia oleracea Sesbania speciose; and 5) no activity – Wolffia globosa, Eichhornia crassipes, Marsilea crenata. The extracts had more inhibitory activity on Gram positive than Gram negative bacteria, ranging from high to low: Staphylococcus pyogenes > Streptococcus pneumoniae > Salmonella typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration testing by micro-dilution assay confirmed that L. adscendens more dramatically affected Gram positive S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae (MIC 0.625 mg/mL) than Gram negative S. typhimurium (MIC 5 mg/mL), whereas L. flava showed a similar effect on tested bacteria (MIC 1.25 mg/mL). Taken together, L. adscendens and L. flava are promising aquatic sources for further application.

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