Main Article Content
This stability study of Clinacanthus nutans or Phayayor cream contained in the National List of Essential
Medicines B.E. 2561 (NLEM 2018) aimed to verify the appropriateness of the extraction and compounding methods. It has been well known that it is impossible to incorporate the ethanolic extract into oil/water (o/w) cream base since such a cream base will lose stability. So alcohol in the C. nutans ethanolic extract had to be removed or the extract had to be modified so that it could be incorporated into the o/w cream base to avoid incompatibility. The study suggests to emulsify the C. nutans extract with Tween 20 before incorporating it into the o/w cream base to resolve the incompatibility problem. The study also emphasized the importance of assuring and promoting the quality of Thai traditional medicines (e.g. Andrographis paniculata for treating pharyngotonsillitis, viral infections and diarrhea, and Phayayor cream against herpes virus). Thai traditional medicines are not only used at the primary care level, but also in the international market especially medical tourism as declared in the national Thai herbs policy.
World Health Organization. The third ten years of the World Health Organization: 1968-1978. Socrates Listios
Geneva, WHO. 2008. 340 p.
Chokevivat V. Policies and directions for the development of Thai traditional medicine and alternative medicine
in Thailand. Bangkok: War Veterans Administration Printing; 2003. p. 41-74.
Declaration of Alma-Ata. International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR; 6-12 September
; Alma Ata, Kazakhstan. 1978.
Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine and Pharmacy. Department of Medical Services Order No. 112/2536.
Establishment of the Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine and Pharmacy; 26 March 1993. 1993. (in Thai)
Ministry of Public Health. Bureau cratic reform act B.E. 2545. Section 43, Organization of the Ministry of Public
Health, issued on 3 October 2002. 2002. (in Thai)
Ministry of Public Health. Ministerial regulation on the organization of the Department for Development of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Public Health B.E. 2545, issued on 9 October 2002. 2002. (in
Thaiwibulwong L. The history of the foundation for the promotion of Thai Traditional Medicine. In: Ayurvedh
Year Book B.E. 2532. Bangkok: Sarm Charoen Panich; 1990. p. 39-41. (in Thai)
Ketusingh O. Ayurvedh doctors-modern traditional doctors. In: Ayurvedh Year Book B.E. 2532. Bangkok: Sarm
Charoen Panich; 1990. p. 60-5. (in Thai)
Kamoltham T, Sornrung W. Study on the development of international herbal hub of Thailand with good governance. International Journal of management and applied Science. 2016;2(11):15-20.
Medicinal Plant and Primary Health Care Project (under the support of UNICEF), Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Public Health. Medicinal Plants Manual, Volume 1. Bangkok: H.N. Printing; 1984.
Medicinal Plant and Primary Health Care Project (under the support of UNICEF) , Office of the Permanent
Secretary, Ministry of Public Health. Medicinal Plants Manual, Volume 2. Bangkok: War Veterans Administration
Ali RM, Samah ZA, Mustapha NM, Hussein N. ASEAN Herbal and Medicinal Plants. 2010. p. 284
Ghasemzadeh A, Nasiri A. JAafar HZE, Baghdadi A, Ahmad I. Changes in phytochemical synthesis, chalcone
synthase activity and pharmaceutical qualities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in relation to plant
age. Molecules. 2014;19:17632-48
Subcommittee for the Development of National List of Essential Drugs Order No. 1/2548, Appointment of the
Working Group for the Selection of Herbal Medicinal Products into the National List of Essential Drugs, 19
April 2005. (in Thai)