Health Effects of Ambient Air PM2.5, Pathogenesis and Alternative Medicine Treatment

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Banchob Junhasavasdikul
Payong Wanikiat
Amporn Krobthong
Kamon Chaiyasit


Ambient pollution and PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 mM) affect the health of people all over the world and are increasing in severity. Many systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that both acute and chronic exposure to PM2.5 lead to more risks for many diseases e.g., increasing mortality rate of cardiovascular and respiratory tract diseases, shortened life span, increased blood sugar, HbA1C, dyslipidemia, dermatitis and skin aging, more exacerbation of SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, increased mortality rate of lung cancer and other cancers, increased insulin resistance, hepatitis and NAFLD. The mechanism of diseases caused by ambient pollution and PM2.5 include systemic free radicals in many organs which lead to chronic inflammation via the disbalance of cytokines. Such reactions create toxins like homocysteine and carcinogens to the whole system.  Alternative medicine such as naturopathy and homeopathy can treat such problems by advocating a greater consumption of anti-oxidants and anti-inflamatories, and promoting detoxification of those toxic substances from the body. Using homeopathic remedies can be used for both prophylaxis and treatment. All these integrative medicine modalities are worthy of further research.


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