Impact of Sexual History and Life Skills on Unprotected Anal Sex: A Cross-sectional Study Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Mandalay, Myanmar


  • Myo Zin Oo Faculty of Public Health, St Theresa International College, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand
  • Soe Sandi Tint Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  • Alessio Panza College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Somporn Naklang Faculty of Public Health, St Theresa International College, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand
  • Felicitas Calugan Boleyley Faculty of Public Health, St Theresa International College, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand


Life skills, Men who have sex with men, Myanmar, Sexual history, Unprotected anal sex


Objective: To study the impact of sexual history and life skills on unprotected anal sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mandalay, Myanmar.

Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, 309 MSM between the ages of 15 and 50 participated in the study. The seven townships of Mandalay city in Myanmar were purposely chosen, and the snowball sampling technique was applied to recruit MSM. The study took place between August 2011 and May 2012.

Results: Two thirds of MSM (76.1%) reported having their first anal sex with a man without using a condom. The ability to consistently refuse unwanted sex was reported by a large percent of MSM (84.5%). About 17.5% of MSM admitted to engaging in anal sex without using a condom when their partner proposed it. “Using a condom during anal sex in the previous four months” was statistically strongly associated with life skills to proposing action if partner refuses to use a condom (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Regarding sexual behaviour, life skills, and condom use, MSM in Myanmar has relatively little information. Focus should be placed on developing and conducting life skills training because it is crucial for MSM to engage in safe sex activity. Additionally, it is critical to expand the accessibility of services targeted at MSM, such as sex education, condom distribution and promotion.


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How to Cite

Oo MZ, Tint SS, Panza A, Naklang S, Boleyley FC. Impact of Sexual History and Life Skills on Unprotected Anal Sex: A Cross-sectional Study Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Mandalay, Myanmar. J. Med. Glob. [Internet]. 2023 Jan. 21 [cited 2023 Dec. 10];1(3):121-7. Available from: