Journal of Medical Globalization <p>Journal of Medical Globalization is an interdisciplinary journal focusing on the academic research from different areas, such as medicine, public health, nursing, and dentistry. Its aims to be&nbsp;the leading scientific journal to promote all other areas of western medicine and health sciences, including integrative medicine.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Tanawan Kummalue, MD., Ph.D) (Assoc.Prof. Sakda Arj-Ong Vallibhakara, MD., Ph.D.(Epidemiology), MS.ICT(Information Technology and Communication), MA.(Information Science)) Tue, 20 Sep 2022 15:49:26 +0700 OJS 60 Effects of Smoking on the Performance of the International Federation of Muay Thai Associations (IFMA) Youth Muay Thai Championships, Bangkok in 2018 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Smoking habit in the youth is a new target of most tobacco companies. This habit can retard development and performance in athletes.</p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> To find out the prevalence and effects of smoking in the IFMA Youth World Muay Thai Championships, Bangkok 2018, we carried out as a short cohort study during the game.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> Seventy-five candidates of the game with their ages ranging between 8 and 17 years, 70 males and 5 females, were interviewed and examined as the ordinary regulation. Furthermore, smoking and CO measurement from forceful expiration were also done in these candidates. They were followed up until the end of the game. Correlation among smoking, level of CO and the performance of the candidates were found out.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Forty five of seventy-five or 60% of the candidates reported they did smoke. Twenty of the forty-five smoker candidates, 26.6%, did smoking every day ranging from 1 to 15 times a day. CO measurement among these smoker candidates revealed 1 to 9 ppm. On the other hand, CO measurement showed 0 to 1 in the nonsmoker candidates. Two of the candidates in non-smoking group received Gold Medal Award. In the candidates who could not pass the first round 28/32 or 87.5% were in the smoking group with CO in their force expiration over 5 ppm. Furthermore, none in the smoking group could pass the final contest.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Prevalence of smoking habit in candidates of the IFMA Youth Muay Thai Championships 2018 was very high. Smoking has negative effect on their performance of the game.</p> Anchalee Supopak, Saranatra Waikakul, Vichai Vanadurongvan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 A Case of Endocrine Therapy On refractory ER-Positive Metastatic Ovarian Cancer to Axillary lymph-node - Is there a role? <p>Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death in gynaecological malignancy. It is important to differentiate between metastatic ovarian cancer to the axillary lymph-nodes with metastatic breast cancer to the axillary lymph-nodes as each treatment differs. We started endocrine therapy on a 58-year-old lady with ER-positive metastatic ovarian cancer to the axillary lymph-node as the wound was refractory to chemoradiation therapies. Endocrine therapy is easy to administer and has a low toxicity profile with reasonably good outcome. It should be considered in patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, non-tolerable and in palliative cases. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Sim Lin Kiat, Norlia Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Editorial Messges from Prof. Saranatra Waikakul, Executive Editor, Journal of Medical Globalization <p>On behalf of the editorial board of the <em>Journal of Medical Globalization (J Med Glob)</em>, our authors, readers, and reviewers, I would like to express my deep appreciation to <strong>Assoc. Prof. Bangorn Benjathikul</strong>, the President of BangkokThonburi University. Under her leadership, the journal has seen a consistent increase in the number of views, articles downloaded, submissions, and publications. Since its establishment, I have been engaging in my role of Executive Editor of the <em>Journal of Medical Globalization</em>. I have had the privilege of working closely with our editorial team, reviewers, and readers.</p> <p>We plan for more issues on important scientific topics and academic activities in the Thailand Region, and internationally. We hope that this issue and all other publications of the <em>J Med Glob </em>continue to provide valuable and high-quality material on scientific research in medical fields. </p> <p>Our goals would not be achieved without collective efforts of publishing good quality and impactful publications. I invite each of you to actively participate and contribute to the <em>J Med Glob</em> as an author, reviewer, and reader and advocate for new ideas and leader for change. The <em>J Med Glob</em> has a strong foundation, and I am confident that collectively, we can take it to new heights.</p> <p><strong>Prof. Saranatra Waikakul</strong></p> <p><em>Executive Editor</em></p> <p>Journal of Medical Globalization</p> <p>Faculty of Medicine, BangkokThonburi University</p> Saranatra Waikakul Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Long COVID-19 syndrome: What we learn from the past? <p>Many millions people worldwide has been suffering from an emerging highly contagious viral disease, COVID-19, in the Year 2019. Not only the acute phase or “early phase” can cause mortalities, but also the stage IV or “Long COVID phase” can cause morbidities in these groups of patients. To date, COVID-19 infected patients presented with “Long COVID phase” are rising all the time. At “Long COVID phase” (stage IV), various complications of the bodies’ systems are involved, such as pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, neuropsychiatric, and gastrointestinal systems, etc. The mechanisms underlying these complications are not well established. However, recent reports demonstrated that the symptoms of the stage IV might be resulted from the abnormal immunities after the infection, especially the adaptive immune response. Thus, this prompted us to review the pathophysiology, risk factors, symptomatology and complications, including diagnosis and treatment of “Long COVID phase”.</p> Sukpapohn Phummisutthigoon, Tanawan Kummalue Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Catheter Drainage in Liver Abscesses <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong> To study the outcome and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in liver abscess.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods:</em></strong> This prospective study was conducted from 2017 to 2018. A total of 33 patients with liver abscess were treated with this method. Ultrasound and CT abdomen were done after clinical assessment for the initial size and localization of the abscess cavity. The percutaneous drainage with a 12-Fr pigtail catheter was done with the “trocar and cannula” method. Then, the cavity size was assessed every 2 days by the ultrasound. After removal of the catheter, the patients were assessed with ultrasound at the 2<sup>nd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> weeks. Hospital stay, cavity size reduction, and outcomes were studied.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>The study showed that patients were mainly aged between 31 and 40 (21.2%). Most patients were males (78.8%). In this study, amoebic abscess patients started to gain a 50% reduction in abscess cavity size after drainage at 4–28 days (11.45 days±7.46) whereas pyogenic abscess patients started at 6–28 days (12 days±10.71). The amoebic liver abscess group showed 2–9 days of hospital stay (4.45 days±1.79). Patients with pyogenic abscess had 3-6 days of hospital stay (4.75 days±1.5). One patient experienced localized peritonitis (3.4%) and 1 patient encountered a blocked catheter (3.4%).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> This study highlighted Myanmar's clinical data of liver abscess and the results and outcomes of the percutaneous catheter drainage method for liver abscess treatment. Although this was a small sample size study, this method showed rapid improvement and good clinical outcomes.</p> Ye Htet Aung, Thida Oung Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Knowledge and Attitude towards Transfusion Transmissible Infections among New Blood Donors at Blood Bank of Mandalay General Hospital in Myanmar <p><strong><em>Objectives</em></strong>: To study the level of knowledge and attitude towards transfusion transmissible infections among new blood donors at blood bank of Mandalay general hospital in Myanmar.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods</em></strong>: From April 1<sup>st</sup> to December 31<sup>st</sup>, 2016, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 406 new blood donors at blood bank of Mandalay general hospital in Myanmar. Participants in this study were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Stata 13 was used to conduct the statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: About 53.7% of new blood donors were males and 46.3% were females. Regarding knowledge level, a high percentage of new blood donors (87.7%) had low knowledge of transfusion transmissible infections, while 12.3% had high knowledge. Almost all new blood donors (98.5%) had a positive attitude, with only a few (1.5%) having a negative attitude.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Despite a high percentage of low knowledge among new blood donors at blood bank of Mandalay General Hospital in Myanmar, there was a positive attitude towards transfusion transmissible infections. A positive attitude can result from adequate knowledge, which can lead to good practices. It is recommended that the community be educated on the prevention of transfusion transmissible infections and safe blood transfusion.</p> Kyaw Min Oo, Myo Zin Oo, Win Khaing Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Anti-hyperlipidemic Property of Cinnamon Stomachic Mixture: A Pilot Study <p><strong><em>Introduction</em></strong>: Cinnamon stomachic mixture, one of the Thai traditional herbal recipes, is in the National herbal drug lists in Thailand. It has long been prescribed for treating flatulence and dyspepsia. As already known, cinnamon demonstrated the potential for reducing blood lipid and glucose. In this pilot study, we investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic property of cinnamon stomachic mixture.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods</em></strong>: The open-label, one single arm, prospective, pilot study was conducted at Ampur Muang District Primary Care Center, Prapokkloa Branch, Chanthaburi province, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. Cinnamon stomachic mixture was produced from the GMP certified pharmaceutical company (Thongtong Osoth). The quality control was performed at Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University. Subjects were recruited with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood chemistry including complete blood count were investigated for evaluation of the safety. All subjects were advised to take 2 tablespoons of the mixture after mealtime, 3 times daily for total 2 months. At the end of the first and second months, all subjects were asked to follow up with physical examination, blood chemistry tests, the same as done at the beginning. The anti-hyperlipidemic effects of the cinnamon stomachic mixture were assessed as the primary outcome.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: Based on our results, the decreasing of total blood cholesterol and triglyceride, before and after herbal recipe ingestion, was detected, but no statistical difference was observed. Other blood chemistry and complete blood count were not statistically changed. Interestingly, the statistical difference with p value = 0.034 was found in AST level, at 2 months.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Cinnamon stomachic mixture could reduce total cholesterol and triglyceride level, but not significant. The potent hepatoprotective property of cinnamon stomachic mixture is shown in this investigation. However, more clinical studies are still needed to be assure of the lipid lowering property of cinnamon stomachic mixture in patients with dyslipidemia.</p> Surasak Im-iam, Varanon Intaravattana, Sirimon Boonkoy, Udomlux Jamsad, Chatchai Sawasdichai, Jirawan Pattanapanich, Veena Satitpatipan, Tanawan Kummalue Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 The Benefits of 4-Sided Behavioral Modification Strategy on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the National Alliance for Tobacco Free Networks, Thailand <p><strong>Background:</strong> Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the critical cause of morbidity and mortality in Thailand. Medical treatment and lifestyle modifications are indicated to control the disease. However, the efficacy of lifestyle modification programs is still not clearly revealed. Objective: To estimate and report on the effectiveness of health-risk behavior modification programs, called the "Change 4 Health" Strategy, on health outcomes in the National Alliance for Tobacco Free, Thailand.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials:</strong> "Change 4 Health" programs use mnemonics to change four bad habits: A-Avoiding Alcohol, B-Body Movement, C-Cessation, and D-Diet. Results aimed to retrieve the summary and secondary data from the database. Thailand's National Alliance for Tobacco Free (THPAAT) offers basic, easy-to-follow behavior workshops. We reviewed 1,815 quality records and qualitative data from 20 Bangkok primary care units. Changes in health risk behaviors were tracked 1 and 3 months after "Change4Health" was implemented. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors, alcohol intake, smoking cessation, exercise, and eating behaviors and diets were statistically significant at a p-value of 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> THPAAT's "Change 4 Health" technique helped populations quit smoking, improve their dietary habits, exercise more, and reduce alcohol consumption by 45%, 47.8%, 11.8%, and 15.8%, respectively. One-third (31.3%) reported weight loss. Nearly one-fifth (16.3%) reduced their waist circumference. These effects were linked to eating and smoking (p-value &lt;0.01). Smoking cessation and exercise reduced blood pressure monitoring by 15.3%. Dextrostix found that glucose levels improved by 55.2%, which was strongly linked to eating behavior. One-third of LDL values dropped after eating and smoking cessation (p-value &lt;0.01). Reducing alcohol consumption improved health indicators (body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, and LDL) by 15.85% (p-values &gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A health-risk behavior modification program called Change 4 Health (Avoid Alcohol, B-Body movement, C-Cessation, D-Diet) improved health indexes among participants. However, smoking cessation and diet changes appeared to be the most effective way to change physical parameters, including body weight, Waist circumferences, and have some effect on blood sugar and lipid level.</p> Amporn Krobthong, Sakda Arj-Ong Vallibhakara, Suthat Rungruanghiranya, Suwanee Raktham, Rattiyaporn Thongyourn, Komgrib Pukrittayakamee Copyright (c) 2022 J Med Glob Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Factors Influencing Consumers’ Attitude Towards Online Buying of Dietary Supplements: A Study on Consumers at LifePlus Store in Mandalay <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: With technological advancements, the internet has transformed people's lives worldwide. Marketing has been boosted by the creation of online virtual stores. Customers can buy products and services from anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, without geographical or temporal constraints.</p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>: Although many advertisers realize the power of the Internet, few research studies have been written on the characteristics that drive Mandalay customers to buy dietary supplements online. The aim of this study is to examine the influencing factors of customer attitude towards online purchasing of dietary supplements in Mandalay.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods</em></strong>: Data was collected from 'LifePlus' pharmacy, health, and beauty store OTC (over the counter medicine) customers using a self-administered pre-structured questionnaire. The collected data was examined using a quantitative approach descriptive-analytical design. The survey is based on 309 respondents who were willing to participate.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: According to the findings of the survey, customers' attitudes toward online buying for dietary supplements are influenced by perceived benefits (convenience, time savings, trust, and comparison). The results of the study indicate that factors such as time saving, and trust influence the consumers’ attitudes towards online shopping. Furthermore, there is a positive effect on consumers’ attitudes towards online shopping of dietary supplements.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: This study strongly recommends online marketers to enhance timely delivery and trust with online shoppers to increase sales of their product or service other than dietary supplements.</p> May Hnin Phyu, Win Khaing Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Medical Globalization Tue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0700