Long COVID-19 syndrome: What we learn from the past?
Keywords:complication, Long COVID, mechanisms, stage IV COVID-19
Many millions people worldwide has been suffering from an emerging highly contagious viral disease, COVID-19, in the Year 2019. Not only the acute phase or “early phase” can cause mortalities, but also the stage IV or “Long COVID phase” can cause morbidities in these groups of patients. To date, COVID-19 infected patients presented with “Long COVID phase” are rising all the time. At “Long COVID phase” (stage IV), various complications of the bodies’ systems are involved, such as pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, neuropsychiatric, and gastrointestinal systems, etc. The mechanisms underlying these complications are not well established. However, recent reports demonstrated that the symptoms of the stage IV might be resulted from the abnormal immunities after the infection, especially the adaptive immune response. Thus, this prompted us to review the pathophysiology, risk factors, symptomatology and complications, including diagnosis and treatment of “Long COVID phase”.
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