Coronavirus disease 2019 in children

Main Article Content

Warawut Kriangburapa

Abstract

In December 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe pneumonia caused from an unknown
virus in Wuhan, China. The virus was later identified to be a novel coronavirus namedSevere
Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing Coronavirus Disease 2019
(COVID-19). By April 2nd, 2020, COVID-19 had resulted in over 890,000 cases and over 45,000
deaths worldwide. The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of adults with COVID-19 has
been increasingly reported on. However, clinical data for children is still limited. This article
aims to review the clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19. The author reviewed
systematic literature on children with COVID-19 published from February-April in 2020. Children
have accounted for 1-5% of confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses. Among those cases, 91% of those
children have been exposed to a COVID-19 patient within their household or community.
The most common presentation of COVID-19 in children is pneumonia (40.9-64.9%), followed
byupper respiratory tract infections (19.3-43.1%). Additional indicators have been asymptomatic
(12.9 - 15.8%) as well ascritical cases (0.4%). The most common symptoms present at the onset
of illness were cough (44-65%) and fever (41.5-60%). CT chest scans revealedbilateral groundglass opacity (32.7-60%), local patchy shadowing (18.7%), bilateral patchy shadowing (12.3%)
andinterstitial abnormalities (1.2%).
COVID-19 tends to be less severe in children as compared with adults. The important message
from this finding is that children contribute to the rapid spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Strategies to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission in children must be recommended.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Special article

References

1. Ahn DG, Shin HJ, Kim MH, Lee S, Kim
HS, Myoung J, et al. Current status of
epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutics, and
vaccines for novel coronavirus disease
2019 (COVID-19). Journal of Microbiology
and Biotechnology. 2020; 30(3): 313-324.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Coronavirus disease 2019 in children -
United States, February 12-April 2, 2020.
MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly
report. 2020; 69(14): 422-426.
3. Ludvigsson JF. Systematic review of
COVID-19 in children shows milder cases
and a better prognosis than adults.
ActaPaediatr. 2020; 109(6): 1088-1095.
4. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z,
et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 among
children in China. Pediatrics. 2020, 145 (6)
e20200702.
5. Lu X, Zhang L, Du H, Zhang J, Li YY, Qu
J, Zhang W, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection
in children. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(17):
1663-1665.
6. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X,
Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and
intrauterine vertical transmission potential
of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant
women: a retrospective review of medical
records. Lancet. 2020; 395(10226): 809-
815.
7. Zheng F, Liao C, Fan QH, Chen HB, Zhao XG,
Xie ZG, Li XL, et al. Clinical Characteristics
of Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019
in Hubei, China. Curr Med Sci. 2020; 40(2):
275-280.
8. Xia W, Shao J, Guo Y, Peng X, Li Z, Hu
D. Clinical and CT features in pediatric
patients with COVID-19 infection: Different
points from adults. PediatrPulmonol.
2020; 55(5): 1169-1174.
9. Molloy, E.J., Bearer, C.F. COVID-19 in
children and altered inflammatory
responses. Pediatr Res (2020). https://doi.
org/10.1038/s41390-020-0881-y
10. Lee P-I, Hu Y-L, Chen P-Y, Huang Y-C,
Hsueh P-R, Are children lesssusceptible
to COVID-19?, Journal of Microbiology,
Immunology and Infection, https://doi.
org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.011.
11. Brodin P. Why is COVID-19 so mild in
children? ActaPaediatrica(Oslo, Norway
:1992). 2020; 109(6): 1082-83.
12. Schouten LR, van Kaam AH, Kohse F,
Veltkamp F, Bos LD, de Beer FM, et al.
Age-dependent differences in pulmonary
host responses in ARDS: a prospective
observational cohort study. Annals of
intensive care. 2019; 9(1): 55.
13. Stein RT, Bont LJ, Zar H, Polack FP, Park
C, Claxton A, et al. Respiratory syncytial
virus hospitalization and mortality:
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017; 52(4): 556-69.
14. Cao Q, Chen YC, Chen CL, Chiu CH. SARSCoV-2 infection in children: Transmission
dynamics and clinical characteristics.
Journal of the Formosan Medical
Association = Taiwan yizhi. 2020; 119(3):
670-3.