Factors Influencing Medication Adherence in Hypertensive Patients without Complications

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Wararom Jitautai
Khemaradee Masingboon
Saifone Moungkum


        A predictive research design was applied in this study and aimed to examine the medication adherence and its influencing factors in hypertensive patients without complications. Ninety-seven participants were recruited by a simple random sampling method. The research instruments comprised of 6 questionnaires including a demographic questionnaire, basic health literacy questionnaire, patient-healthcare provider interpersonal relationship questionnaire, perceptions of hypertension questionnaire, perceived self-efficacy to medication adherence questionnaire, and medication adherence questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data.

            The results showed that 40.2% of the participants had a low level of medication adherence (Mean = 5.95, SD = 1.66). The health literacy, patient-healthcare provider interpersonal relationship, perceptions of hypertension, and perceived self-efficacy to medication adherence explained 28.5% in the variance of medication adherence among hypertensive patients without complications. However, the participants in this study had no complication from hypertension and the study had not been examined comprehensively based on the multidimensional adherence model, thus the generalization of the results is limited. The model suggested that health literacy (β = .24, p = < .05) and perceived self-efficacy to medication adherence (β = .24, p = < .05) were the best influencing factors to medication adherence. The patient-healthcare provider interpersonal relationship and perceptions of hypertension were the factors that followed health literacy and perceived self-efficacy influencing the medication adherence (β = .22, p = < .05, and β = .18, p = < .05, respectively).

            The knowledge gained from this study suggested that the nursing intervention to promote medication adherence should emphasize on perceptions of self-efficacy to medication adherence, health literacy, self-awareness on hypertension, and interpersonal relationship between patients and healthcare providers. The intervention may be beneficial for the patients with hypertension by triggering their self-awareness and reminding the importance of medication adherence. The future research may focus on other factors based on the multidimensional adherence model including condition-related factors, and therapy-related factors. The examination of these factors may provide a useful knowledge for developing a guideline of medication adherence among hypertensive patients. We believe that the guideline may encourage patients to take the medication effectively and comprehensively.


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