Factors Affecting Health Care Behaviors of the Elderly among Urban Community in Bangkok

Main Article Content

Suparp Thaithae
Parinyaporn Thanaboonpuang
Tiwa Mahaprom


          This research aimed to study factors affecting health care behaviors of the elderly among urban community in Bangkok. The participants were 2,615 elderly people selected using multistage random sampling method. The research instrument was the questionnaire that included: 1) demographic data, 2) health care behaviors, 3) perceived self-efficacy, 4) social support, and 5) health literacy. The questionnaire was validated by 5 experts. The item objective congruence was between 0.60 - 1. The content validity index was 0.91 and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were 0.95, 0.90, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics including percentage, mean and standard deviation, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis.

           The results revealed as follows: 1) The overall level of health care behaviors for the elderly was in the moderate level (Mean = 3.33, SD = 0.89). 2) The self-efficacy and social support were at the high level (Mean = 3.79, SD = 0.70, Mean = 3.96, SD = 0.67), respectively. The health literacy was at moderate level (Mean = 3.37, SD = 0.77). All of variables can predict health care behaviors for the elderly at 53.20% (R2 = .532, p = .003). This study suggests that the health care providers should promote health care behaviors of the elderly among urban community in Bangkok with an emphasis on health literacy, social support, and self-efficacy.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Article


Department of Older Persons. Measures to implement national agenda on aged society: 6 sustainable 4 change. [Internet]. [cited 2019 April 10]. Available from: http://www.dop.go.th/

download/knowledge/th1551432930-155_0.pdf. (in Thai).

Foundation of Thai Gerontology Research and Development Institute (TGRI). Situation of Thai elderly 2018. Institute for Population and Social Research. Nakhon Pathom: Mahidol University; 2019. (in Thai).

World Health Organization. Information needs for research, policy, and action on ageing and older adults in Africa meeting report: Harare, Zimbabwe, 20-22 January 2000. [Internet]. [cited 2019 April 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/ageing/


Foundation of Thai Gerontology Research and Development Institute (TGRI). Situation of Thai elderly 2016. Institute for Population and Social Research. Nakhon Pathom: Mahidol University; 2017. (in Thai).

Orem DE, Taylor SG, Renpenning KM. Nursing: concepts of practice. 6th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2001.

Walter S. Holistic health, American holistic health association. [Internet]. [cited 2019 April 10]. Available from: http:// ahha.org/selfhelp-articles/holistic-health/.

Hjelm J. The dimensions of health: conceptual models. Burlington MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2009.

Parti R. The four dimensions of wellness. [Internet]. [cited 2019 April 10]. Available from: http://vividlife.me/ultimate/33464/the-four-dimensions-ofwellness/.

Nutbeam D. Defining, measuring and improving health literacy. Health Evaluation and Promotion 2015;42(4):450-5.

Sorensen K, Van den Broucke S, Fullam J, Doyle G, Pelikan J, Slonska Z, et al. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health 2012;12(80):1-13.

Tachavijitjaru C. Health literacy: a key indicator towards good health behavior and health outcomes. Journal of The Royal Thai Army Nurses 2018;19(Suppl 1):1-11. (in Thai).

Booranaklas W. Correlation between self-care behaviors, family relationship, and happiness of the elderly at the community Saimai district in Bangkok Metropolitan. JOPN 2017;9(2):25-33. (in Thai).

Sandee T, Leelukkanaveera Y, Homsin P. The effects of self-efficacy enhancement on health promotion behaviors, body weight and fasting plasma glucose among pre-diabetes in the community. Songklanagarind J Nurs 2017;37(2):53-6.

Government Gazette. The twelfth national economic and social development plan (2017-2021). [Internet]. [cited 2019 April 16]. Available from: http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/

DATA/PDF/2559/A/115/1.PDF [20 April 2019].

Taylor SG, Orem DE. Self-care deficit theory of nursing. In: Tomey AM, Alligood MR, editors. Nursing theorists and their work. Missouri: Mosby Elsevier; 2006.

Bandura A. Social learning theory. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs; 1997.

House JS. Work stress and social support. MA: Addison-Wesley; 1981.

Intarakamhang U, Intarakamhang P. Health literacy scale and model of childhood overweight. J Res Health Sci 2017;17(1):1-8. (in Thai).

Institute for Population and Social Research. This report of the situation of the elderly in Thailand 2018. Bangkok: Duentula; 2019. (in Thai).

Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods 2009;41(4):1149-60.

Srisa-ard B. Basic research. 9th ed. Bangkok: Suwiriyasarn; 2011. (in Thai).

Darun D, Krairat P. Health literacy factors influencing on health behavior of population in Bueng Kan province. Journal of Department of Health Service Support 2019;15(3):71-82. (in Thai).

Boonprakob T, Sasat S. Selected factors related to postoperative recovery in older person with total knee arthroplasty. Royal Thai Navy Medical Journal 2019;46(2):355-68. (in Thai).

Fivecoat HC, Sayers SL, Riegel B. Social support predicts self-care confidence in patients with heart failure. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2018;17(7):598-604.

Karimy M, Koohestani Hr, Araban M. The association between attitude, self-efficacy, and social support and adherence to diabetes self-care behavior. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2018;10(1):86.