The Association between Gender, Hypertension Knowledge, Self-efficacy, Social Support and Lifestyle Modification among Bhutanese People with Hypertension

  • Niphawan Samartkit Faculty of Nursing, Burapha University
  • Nima Dorji
  • Khemaradee Masingboon Faculty of Nursing, Burapha University
  • Wipa Wiseso Faculty of Nursing, Burapha University
Keywords: lifestyle modification, hypertension knowledge, self-efficacy, social support,


The purposes of this descriptive correlational research design aimed to analyze the relationship among gender, hypertension knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and lifestyle modification among persons with hypertension (HT). Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit 108 persons with HT visiting non-communicable disease unit of Punakha District Hospital, Bhutan. Data were collected during March and April, 2020 using the Demographic Questionnaire, Hypertension Self-care Profile Behavior Scale, Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale, Hypertension Self-Efficacy Scale and Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support each bearing reliability coefficient of 0.83; 0.82; 0.81 and 0.85 respectively. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Point-biserial correlation and Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. The result showed that lifestyle modification was high among the participants (M = 53.9 ± 7.7). There were significantly positive relationship between lifestyle modification with hypertension knowledge (r = .27, p < .01), perceived self-efficacy (r =.43, p < .001), perceived social support (r =.26, p <.01). There was no relationship between lifestyle modification and gender (rpb=.03, p.79). This study result reveal that lifestyle modification of persons with HT can be enhanced by designing an intervention directed toward strengthening hypertension knowledge, perceived self-efficacy and perceived social support.


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