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This case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) among patients admitted at Champasak Hospital, Lao PDR during August 2018 and October 2018. Sample consisted of 96 female and male patients aged 18 and over. Subjects were divided into 2 groups. Cases were 48 patients with PUD and controls were 48 patients without PUD (Non-PUD). Data were collected from medical record reviews and PUD ecological risk factors questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarized PUD risk factors and simple and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with PUD. Results revealed that there were 3 groups of factors associated with PUD. 1) Personal factors included H. pylori infection (OR= 4.88, 95% CI: 1.87-12.73, p=.001), NSAIDs use (OR= 107.81, 95% CI: 12.64-919.11, p <0.001), alcoholic beverages consumption (OR= 31.61, 95% CI: 3.38-295.66, p=.002), and frequent meal-skipping (OR= 45.22, 95% CI: 4.84-422.05, p=.001). 2) Interpersonal factors included friends’ acceptance of alcohol-drinking behavior (OR=7.37, 95% CI: 1.47-36.87, p= .01) and family approval of alcohol-drinking (OR= 3.98, 95% CI: 1.24-12.21, p=.02). 3) Socio-cultural and legal factor included buying alcohol beverages after 4 pm. (OR=5.02,95% CI:1.42-17.72, p= .01). As a result, effective PUD prevention needs to target these 3 levels of risk factors.