Prevalence of Anemia among Hospitalized Children Under 5 Year-Old at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital


  • Prawin Tanthaprabha Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital
  • Angkana Winaichatsak Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital


prevalence, anemia, children


Background: Anemia is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries. It is among the five most common childhood health problems and is associated with impaired cognitive development, immune system, and brain function in children. Objective: To study the prevalence and etiology of anemia in hospitalized children under 5 years of age at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted between January and March 2021 involving children aged 6 months to 5 years hospitalized at a tertiary care hospital in northeastern Thailand. We analyzed demographic data, age, sex, disease, and hematologic parameters. Children with hemoglobin concentration less than 11 g/dL were classified as anemia. Results: One hundred seventy-four patients were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of anemia was 36.3%, with females more commonly affected than males and children in the 6-12 months, 12-24 months, and 36-48 months age groups most commonly affected (27%, 25.4%, and 19.1%, respectively). The most common condition was respiratory symptom. The severity of anemia was mild (63.5%), moderate (31.7%), and severe (4.8%). The most common cause of anemia in this study was iron deficiency anemia, which was due to inadequate dietary intake, inadequate nutrition, and inadequate oral intake of iron supplements in health promotion. Conclusions: The prevalence of anemia in this study is 36.2%, which is still higher than the country's target of less than 10%, and it was a moderate public health problem in Thailand, especially iron deficiency anemia. A health promotion campaign on iron-rich foods and prevention of iron deficiency by increasing the iron supplement dose to 1-2 mg/kg/day under a health policy program for appropriate dose of demand and consistency of intake may reduce the prevalence of anemia in the future.


Download data is not yet available.


World Health Organization. A guide for programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.

World Health Organization. Prevalence of anaemia in children under 5 year [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2023 Jul 22]. Available from:

Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Wolf AW. Long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency. N Engl J Med 1991;325(10):687-94.

กรมอนามัย กระทรวงสาธารณสุข. รายงานการสำรวจภาวะอาหารและโภชนาการของประเทศไทย ครั้งที่ 5 พ.ศ. 2546. นนทบุรี: กรมอนามัย; 2560.

กรมอนามัย กระทรวงสาธารณสุข. คู่มือแนวทางควบคุมและป้องกันภาวะโลหิตจาง [อินเทอร์เน็ต]. 2557 [เข้าถึงเมื่อ 22 ก.ค. 2566]. เข้าถึงได้จาก:

Apikulchatkit Y. Prevalence of anemia and effectiveness of weekly iron supplementation in the prevention of anemia among infants aged 9-12 months in well baby clinic, Police General Hospital. JOPN 2020;12(1):161-70.

ราชวิทยาลัยกุมารแพทย์แห่งประเทศไทย. กำหนดการดูแลสุขภาพเด็กไทย. กรุงเทพฯ: ราชวิทยาลัยกุมารแพทย์แห่งประเทศไทย; 2557.

Santos RF, Gonzalez ESC, Albuquerque EC, Arruda IKG, Diniz AS, Figueroa JN, et al. Prevalence of anemia in under five-year-old children in a children’s hospital in Recife, Brazil. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 2011;33(2):100-4.

Simbauranga RH, Kamugisha E, Hokororo A, Kidenya BR, Makani J. Prevalence and factors associated with severe anaemia among under-five children hospitalized at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania. BMC Hematol 2015;15:13.

Muthusamy BG, Venugopal V, Sumitra S. Prevalence of anaemia among the hospitalized children in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital. Int j Contemp Pediatr 2017;4(2):431-7.

Salami A, Bahmad HF, Ghssein G, Salloum L, Fakih H. Prevalence of anemia among Lebanese hospitalized children: Risk and protective factors. PLoS One 2018;13(8):e0201806.

Souvanlasy B, Wiangnon S, Jetsrisuparb A, Fucharoen G. Iron deficiency anemia among hospitalized children with microcytic anemia hospitalized in national children’s hospital in Vientiane, Lao PDR. J Hematol Transfus Med 2019;29(1):35-46.

Gursoy I, Turkkan E, Dag H. Evaluation of anemia frequency and etiologies in hospitalized patients in a tertiary pediatrics clinic. Med Sci and Dis 2021;8(12):696-702.

World Health Organization. The global prevalence of anaemia in, 2011 [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2023 Jul 22]. Available from: 9789241564960_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Enawgaw B, Workineh Y, Tadesse S, Mekuria E, Addisu A, Genetu M. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among hospitalized children attending the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. EJIFCC 2019;30(1):35-47.

Ughasoro MD, Emodi IJ, Okafor HU, Ibe BC. Prevalence of moderate and severe anaemia in children under 5 in University of Negeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Pediatr Res 2011;70(S5):489-9.

Saba F, Poornima S, Balaji PAR, Varne SRR, Jayashree K. Anemia among hospitalized children at a Multispecialty Hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka), India. J Fam Med Prim Care 2014;3(1):48-53.

World Health Organization. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO global database on anaemia [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2023 Jul 22]. Available from:

Zuffo CRK, Osorio MM, Taconili CA, Schmidt ST, Silva BHC. Prevalence and risk factors of anemia in children. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2016;92(4):353-60.

Angeles IT, Schultink WJ, Matulessi P, Gross R, Sastroamidjojo A. Decreased rate of stunting among anemic Indonesian preschool children through iron supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58(3):339-34.

Baker RD, Greer FR, Committee on Nutrition American Academy of Pediatrics. Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age). Pediatrics 2010;126(5):1040-50.

สมาคมโลหิตวิทยาแห่งประเทศไทย. Iron deficiency anemia. ใน: กิตติ ต่อจรัส, พิมพ์ลักษณ์ เจริญขวัญ, บรรณาธิการ. แนวทางเวชปฏิบัติสำหรับการรักษาภาวะโลหิตจางและธาลัสซีเมีย: กรุงเทพฯ: สมาคมโลหิตวิทยาแห่งประเทศไทย; 2562. หน้า 39-46.

กมล เผือกเพ็ชร. การคัดกรองภาวะโลหิตจาง ใน: พงษ์ศักดิ์ น้อยพยัคฆ์, วินัดดา ปิยะศิลป์, วันดี นิงสานนท์ ประสบศรี อึ้งถาวร, บรรณาธิการ. Guideline in child health supervision. กรุงเทพฯ : สมาคมกุมารแพทย์แห่งประเทศไทย; 2557. หน้า 152-60.

ชาญชัย ไตรวารี. ภาวะโลหิตจางจากการขาดธาตุเหล็ก. วารสารโลหิตวิทยาและเวชศาสตร์บริการโลหิต 2562;29(1):5-7.

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition: the use of whole cow’s milk in infancy. Pediatrics 1992;89(6 Pt 1):1105-9.




How to Cite

Tanthaprabha P, Winaichatsak A. Prevalence of Anemia among Hospitalized Children Under 5 Year-Old at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital. JPMAT [Internet]. 2023 Aug. 31 [cited 2023 Nov. 30];13(2):62-75. Available from:



Original Article