Assessment of Adverse Effect of Daily Consumption Amounts of Resistant Starch Type 2 from Maize Fortified in Chocolate-flavored Milk on the GI Tract in Healthy Thai Women of Reproductive Age: a Pilot Study


  • Kemika Praengam Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170 THAILAND
  • Nattapol Tangsuphoom Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170 THAILAND
  • Pattanee Winichagoon Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170 THAILAND
  • Siriporn Tuntipopipat Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170 THAILAND


resistant starch, adverse effect on gastrointestinal tract, resistant starch fortified in chocolate-flavored milk


Resistant starch is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is unabsorbed in the small intestine but has been reported to provide various health benefits. However, high-dose consumption of resistant starch may generate adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). This pilot study assessed the side effects of daily consumption of resistant starch type 2 (RS) from maize fortified in chocolate-flavored milk on the GI tract. The study was conducted on 30 apparently healthy females. Participants received 30 g/d RS fortified in chocolate-flavored milk for 14 days, and 7 days washed out, and 40 g/d RS fortified in a similar product for another 14 days. Adverse effects on the GI tract were recorded after drinking the RS fortified product for 3, 7, 10, and 14 days. Consumption of 30 g/d RS fortified in chocolate-flavored milk for 2 weeks showed a weaker adverse effect on the GI tract than consumption of 40 g/d RS. The common symptoms were stomach gas, flatulence, belching, and stomach growling. There was no significant effect on weight change and dietary intake after consumption of the RS fortified product relative to baseline. The low water solubility of RS leads to low product sensory acceptability, therefore, the fortification level of resistant starch in food products to minimize the adverse GI symptoms and the undesirable mouthfeel caused by resistant starch has to be optimized. Besides, resistant starch fortified in other food products needs to be explored to increase the number of product choices for investigation of its beneficial effects on human health.


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Praengam, K., Tangsuphoom, N. ., Winichagoon, P., & Tuntipopipat, S. (2023). Assessment of Adverse Effect of Daily Consumption Amounts of Resistant Starch Type 2 from Maize Fortified in Chocolate-flavored Milk on the GI Tract in Healthy Thai Women of Reproductive Age: a Pilot Study. Journal of Nutrition Association of Thailand, 58(2), 26–43. Retrieved from



Research article