Coffee Consumption Patterns, Metabolic Factors and The Risk of Hypertension Related to Obesity
Keywords:obesity, coffee consumption, hypertension, metabolic syndrome
Obesity contributes to risk factors for metabolic syndrome including high cholesterol, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure, which may lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Consequently, dietary strategies have been proposed to manage obesity and its comorbidities. A large number of studies reported that coffee consumption have been associated with both a lower and higher risk of hypertension in people who drink it habitually. This study investigated the relationship between coffee consumption, various metabolic factors, and risk of hypertension among obese men compared to those who were not obese. Participants were 358 men aged 45-60 years. Information related to their characteristics, biochemical parameters, and coffee consumption patterns were analyzed based on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (normal, prehypertension, and hypertension grade I/II). Results showed significant correlations between SBP and DBP with BMI, WC, TG, LDL-C, UA, FBG, and HbA1C in obese men with prehypertension and HT grade I/II (all p values < 0.05). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, participants who drank coffee showed significantly higher SBP and DBP. In addition, multinomial logistic regression analysis identified significant factors associated with the risk of prehypertension and hypertension, including uric acid, TG, coffee intake, number of coffees consumed, and the addition of sugar/creamer. Our findings suggest that coffee consumption associated with hypertension and obesity increased with the quantity of coffee consumed over a long period of time, which should be a concern. To better understand the causal relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome, more longitudinal studies are required.
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