Effectiveness of Group Teaching on Caregivers for Discharge Planning among Patients having Nasogastric Tube Feeding at Home


  • Supa Suraseraneewong Ambulatory Nursing Service Division, Nursing Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University
  • Nitchatima Sereewichayasawad Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University
  • Anong Dittasung Nursing Service Division, Nursing Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University


Group teaching, Caregivers, Discharge planning, Nasogastric tube feeding


The role of nurses for discharge planning among patients having nasogastric tube feeding must be considered. This includes teaching patients or caregivers correct caring practices and preventing complications or unexpected events. This quasi–experimental research aimed to study the effectiveness of group teaching concerning caregivers for discharge planning among patients having nasogastric tube feeding at home. The sample of 60 subjects, selected using purposive sampling, was equally divided in control and experimental groups. The control group received routine home health care nursing and the experimental group used planned teaching as the intervention instrument. Data were collected by questionnaire comprising demographic data, evaluation care data and pre- and posttest caring scores. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test paired t-test and Independent T-test. The results showed that both groups did not differ regarding sex, age, caregiver, life style, education, marital status and occupation. The mean scores of understanding of caring in the experimental group were significantly higher after receiving intervention (P-value< .0001). In contrast, the difference in mean scores of understanding of caring in the control group were significantly higher than those of the experimental group (p-value< .01) In summary, even though individual teaching could improve acquisition and learning because caregivers could ask and define their problems independently, the nurse specialty was still recommended to be taught. However, the group teaching model could support and provide caregivers to better follow instructions and increase understanding. Moreover, sharing experiences among groups could influence others to exhibit higher confidence levels. Therefore, group teaching was a distinct advantage and proved appropriate to apply in the Home Health Care Unit.


Home Health Care Unit, Ramathibodi Hospital. Home Care Data 2012-2014.

Sereewichyasawad N, Maneewong P, Srisuk O, Pho- Ngeon N, & Nulapaichit N. Factors Related to Hospital Readmission Among Stroke Patient in Home Health Care Unit. Journal of Public Health Nursing. 2014; 28(3): 30-39.

Irina B, Yogesh MS, & Jurgen S. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions. World J Gastroenterology. 2014; 20(26): 8505 -8524.

Albugami M, Twaijri YA, Bassil H, Laudon U, Ibrahim A, Karouri M E, & et al. Impact of Long –Term Enteral Feeding Tubes on Aspiration Pneumonia in a Tertiary Care Centre in Saudi Arabia. AJIM. 2015; 3(3): 95-102.

Gamal Y, Selim Y, Adeeba A, & Mona E. A comparison of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding in prolonged dysphagic stroke patients. Advanced Arab Academy Audio-Vestibulogy Journal. 2015; 2(1): 14- 18.

Xu Y, Ren X, Shi W, & Jiang H. Implementation of the best practice in nasogastric tube feeding of critically ill patients in a neurosurgical intensive care unit. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2013; 11(2): 128-133.

Nordiana N, Shahrul BK, Ai-Vyrn C, Philip JH, & Maw PT. A Descriptive study of Nasogastric Tube Feeding Among Geriatric Inpatients in Malaysia: Utilization, Complications, and Caregiver Opinions. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2015; 34(1): 34-49.

Mizock BA. Risk of aspiration in patients on enteral nutrition: frequency, relevance, relation to pneumonia, risk factors, and strategies for risk reduction. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2017; 9(4): 338-344.

David MD, & Richard GW. Aspiration pneumonia: A review of modern trends. Journal of Critical Care. 2015; 30(1): 40–48.

Norma AM, Jami DJ, & Barbara JS. Effectiveness of an Aspiration Risk–Reduction Protocol. Nursing Research. 2010; 59(1): 18-25.

Seliman AMA, El-Soussi AH, Sultan MAA, & Othman SY. Effective of Implementing Nursing Guidelines for Tube Feeding on the Occurrence of Aspiration among Critically ill Patients. Nurse and Science. 2011; 9(11): 164-175.

Thongdang K, & Promsiripaiboon Y. Effect of Group Process to Change Health Behaviour of Patients with Hypertension at Watpradoo Health Promotion Hospital, Muang District, Surat Thani Province. CHD-KKU. 2015; 3(2): 261-171.

Sanhuchang W. Effects of education program using group process and telephone follow upon stroke prevention knowledge and practice in elderly with chronic illness. J Prapokklao Hosp Clin Med Educat Center. 2013; 30(4): 260-273.

Rothmann M, Nyland AH, Hammelsvang L, Peterson L, Kirketerp G, & Henriksen JE. Patient education on retinopathy. Eur Diabetes Nursing. 2011; 8(2): 62-66.

Khieasod S, Autadach T, & Saensila W. The Effect of using Group Education Program on Self-Care Behaviors of Schizophrenia patients. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2012; 26(1): 74-85.

Naiyapatana W. Effects of Structural Information-Giving Program Applying Gange’s Learning Theory on Level of Knowledge, Consciousness, and Practices in Preventing 2009 Influenza (H1N1) among Pregnant Women. RTA Med J. 2012; 65(1): 21-31.

Paneeya J, & Kongphet J. Effects of a Planned Teaching Program on Self-Care Behaviors of Surgery Outpatient with Dacryocystorhinostomy. Princess of Naradhiwas University Journal. 2014; 6(1): 25-35.

Chanchai A, Chuyingsakultip N, Gadudom P, & Kaewdang K. Effects of Stroke Caring Program on Knowledge, Skills, Activities of Daily Living, Complications, and Program Satisfaction among Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients/Caregivers at Rayong Hospital. Journal of Phrapokklao Nursing College. 2013; 25(1): 78- 89.

Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review. 1977b; 84(2): 191-215.

Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the behavioral Sciences 2 nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, USA. 1988.

Jaemtim N, Yuenyong S, & Srisodsaluk P. Effects of Preparation to Care for Elderly Program at Sanamchai Subdistrict Mung District Suphanburi Province. Nursing Journal of The Ministry of Public Health. 2015; 25(3): 108-119.

Daniel WW. Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences. 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons, USA. 1999.

Vongterapak S. Hand Book of Home Nasogastric Tube Feeding. Home Health Care Unit. Ambulatory Care Nursing Service Ambulatory Care Service. Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital. 2009.

Tapanon P, Nimit–arnun N, Amnatsatsue K, & Chomson S. The Effects of A Continuing Care Program for Pressure Sore Prevention among High-Risk Patients. Christian University of Thailand Journal. 2007; 14(1): 63-72.

kaew – Kangawan S. Psychology of life development for all ages 9 th ed. Thamasat University Press, Bangkok. Thailiand. 2010.

Seesawang J, & Songwattayut P. The Effectiveness of Supportive-Educative Program on Knowledge, Attitude, and Skill of Self Breast Examination among Women. Journal of The Royal Thai Army Nurses. 2013; 14(1): 17-23.

Somsiri V, & Susang J. The Effects of Giving Planned Instruction on Knowledge, Perceived Self Care Abilities and Self Care Behavior in Coronary Heart Disease Patients Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Interventionat Songkhlanakarind Hospital. Princess of Naradhiwas University Journal. 2011; 3(1): 33-46.

Khiewchaum R, Ngamkhum S, & Kittithonrakun M. The Effects of Using a Clinical Nursing Guideline for Caregivers’ Preparation in Caring Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Nursing Journal of the Ministry of Public Health. 2013; 23(1): 15-29.

Williams LA. Theory of caregiving dynamics. In: Smith MJ, & Liehr PR, eds. Middle Range Theory for Nursing 3rd eds. Springer Publishing Company, New York, USA. 2014: 261-273.

Kasemkitwattana S, & Prison P. Chronic Patients’ Family Caregivers: A Risk Group That Must Not Be Overlooked. Thai Journal of Nursing Council. 2014; 29(4): 22-30.

Vilela MC, Ferreira GZ, Santos PS, & Regende NP. Oral care and nosocomial pneumonia: a systematic review. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2015; 13(2): 290-296.




How to Cite

Suraseraneewong, S., Sereewichayasawad, N., & Dittasung, A. (2018). Effectiveness of Group Teaching on Caregivers for Discharge Planning among Patients having Nasogastric Tube Feeding at Home. Journal of Public Health Nursing, 32(2), 117–136. Retrieved from https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/phn/article/view/245425



Research Articles