The Role Of Prior Drinking, Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, and Drinking Refusal Self-efficacy in Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy among Bhutanese Pregnant Women

  • Kencho Zangmo Faculty of Nursing, Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand


Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is both a global and national public health issue today. Despite health messages urging women to stay on complete alcohol abstinence during pregnancy, research studies across the globe report a high prevalence of pregnancy drinking. Literature on pregnancy drinking documents that women’s belief factors might play an important role in explaining alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Using Health Belief Model as a research framework, this study examined alcohol consumption and the predicting factors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among Bhutanese pregnant women. Participants were 110 pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic at Jigme Dorji Wangchuk National Referral Hospital, Bhutan. A systematic random sampling technique was employed and data were collected through a face to face interview. Results showed quite a high (43.6%) prevalence of alcohol consumption in the sample. Multiple regression analysis revealed that prior drinking, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and drinking refusal self-efficacy together explained a statistical significance of  67% variation in alcohol consumption during pregnancy (R2= .67 Adjusted R2 = .65, F [4,105] = 52.05, p < .001). Moreover, perceived susceptibility (β = -.20, p < .01), perceived severity (β = -.24, p < .001), and drinking refusal self-efficacy (β = -.47, p < .001) showed unique role as independent predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Findings suggest that women’s belief factors play an important role in alcohol consumption during pregnancy and innovative interventions to change pregnant women’s false beliefs about pregnancy drinking should be incorporating to the existing antenatal care system.  


Keywords: Alcohol consumption, pregnancy, prior drinking, health belief model, drinking refusal self-efficacy. 


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Kencho Zangmo, Faculty of Nursing, Burapha University, Chonburi, Thailand
I am kencho Zangmo, master nursing student in Burapha Univerity, Thailand and I am a clinical nurse-iv, working with Jigme Dorji Wangchuk National Referral hospital, Thimphu, Bhutan



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