Exploration of the global developmental delay cues in children through peer-related interactions among pre-schoolers in school environments Global developmental delay cues in children

Main Article Content

Athumani Mgaya


The study explored if and extents to which peer-related interactions provide signs of global developmental delays and suggest the appropriate measures (if any). It involved six hundred and twelve 612 respondents among which five hundred and fifty-eight (n=558) were preschoolers randomly selected using the lottery method and fifty-four (n=54) teachers conveniently selected. Mixed approach with a cross-sectional design, using observation for preschoolers and interview for teachers, the analysis made using ANOVA and Chi-square, with a statistically significant p-value of p≤ .05 and confidence level of 0.95(CL of 95%) with the application of SPSS version 20 and thematic content analysis. Only 3.2% of preschoolers were in very serious delays in the cognitive domain on communication difficulties showing no significant difference in sex and their class level, 14.5% in physical delays with an inability to perform simple tasks significantly with their age and 1.4% showed behavioural delays as they always need reprimanded, restless and prolonged tantrums while 0.7% were unable to participate in discussions significantly with their age and sex. Above 50% of teachers suggested about Early Intervention (EI) to children with developmental delay signals. Interactions should start to children below school age for Early Stimulation (ES), additionally, parents and caregivers are to be provided with guidelines from experts as a way to identify and or resolve the problem, a longitudinal study can be done on developmental delay cues from the age of three to eight years can be conducted, but also large sample from the survey could be used for generalisation.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mgaya, A. (2021). Exploration of the global developmental delay cues in children through peer-related interactions among pre-schoolers in school environments: Global developmental delay cues in children. International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health, 9(2), 36–46. Retrieved from https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/cdmh/article/view/250384
Original Articles


Hirai, A. H., Kogan, M. D., Kandasamy, V., Reuland, C., & Bethell, C. (2018). Prevalence and

variation of developmental screening and surveillance in early childhood. JAMA

pediatrics, 172(9), 857-866.

Campbell, S. B. (2002). Behaviour problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental

issues (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Ertem, I. O., Krishnamurthy, V., Mulaudzi, M. C., Sguassero, Y., Balta, H., Gulumser, O., ... &

Forsyth, B. W. (2018). Similarities and differences in child development from birth to

age 3 years by sex and across four countries: a cross-sectional, observational study. The

Lancet Global Health, 6(3), e279-e291.

EGPAF. (2018). Integrated early childhood development services: The Tanzania Experience.

Dar es salaam: Hilton foundation.

Fleggen, K.J., Lamble, L.A & Donald, K.A. (2019). Investigating developmental delay in South

Africa: A pragmatic approach, South African Medical Journal (SAMJ), 109(4), 210-213.

Frankel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2014). How to design and evaluate research in education.

Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Guralnick, M.J., & Groom, J.M. (1987). The peer relations of mildly delayed and non-

handicapped pre-school children in mainstreamed playgrounds. Journal of child

development. 58(6), 1556-72.

Holmes-Lonergan, H. A. (2003). Preschool children's collaborative problem-solving interactions:

The role of gender, pair type, and task. Sex roles, 48(11), 505-517.

Hunt, N. (2020). Identifying Young Children for Early Intervention in California. Policy

Analysis for California Education, PACE.

Kopp, C.B., Baker, B.L., & Brown, K.W. (1992). Social skills and their correlates: Pre-schoolers

with developmental delays. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 96(40), 357-366.

Kyla, B. (2010). Your child development and behaviour resources: A guide to information and

support to parents. Michigan: University of Michigan.

Lisa, K., Ulrike, N., Mark, M., & Paul, C. (2015). Emotional development among early school-

age children: gender differences in the role of problem behaviours. Journal of Educational

Psychology. 36(8), 1408–1428.

Topçiu, M., & Myftiu, J. (2015). Vygotsky theory on social interaction and its influence on the

development of pre-school children. European Journal of Social Sciences Education and

Research, 2(3), 172-179.

MoEVT. (2014). Education and Training Policy. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Education and

Vocational Training, Government Press.

Mithyantha, R., Kneen, R., McCann, E., & Gladstone, M. (2017). Current evidence-based

recommendations on investigating children with global developmental delay. Archives of

disease in childhood, 102(11), 1071-1076.

Palejwala, M. H. & Fine, J. G. (2015). Gender Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities in

Children Aged 2 to 7. Intelligence. 48, 96-108.

Schanke, T. (2021). Children’s cooperation in a number activity in kindergarten. Journal of

Research on Children and Social Interaction, 4(2), 267-291

Shaahmadi, F., Khushemehri, G., Arefi, Z., Karimyan, A., & Heidari, F. (2015). Developmental

Delay and Its Effective Factors in Children Aged 4 to12 Months. International Journal of

Pediatrics, 3(1.1), 396-402.

Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighbourhoods: The science of early

childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of agressive behaviour during childhood: What have

we learned in the past century?. International journal of behavioral development, 24(2),


UNESCO. (2006). Education for all global monitoring report 2007: strong foundations: early

childhood care and development. Paris: UNESCO.

UNICEF. (2018). Tanzania for every child: Annual report 2018. Dar es salaam: UNICEF


Virginia, E., Leslie, M., Jason, T., & Amanda, W. (2011). Variation in Children's classroom

engagement throughout a day in preschool: Relations to classroom and child factors.

PMC Journal. 27(2), 210-220.

Wenner, M. (2009). The serious need for play. Scientific American Mind, 20(1), 22-29.

WHO. (2007). International classification of functioning, disability and health: children and

youth version. Geneva: World Health Organization.

World Bank. (2009). Examining early child development in low-income countries: a toolkit for

the assessment of children in the first five years of life. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Yaghini, O., Kelishadai, R., Kelkha, M., Nicknam, N., Sadeghi, S., Najafpour, E., & Ghazavi, M.

(2015). Prevalence of developmental delay in apparently normal preschool in isfaham,

central Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology. 9(3), 17-23.

Ying, Y., Pratibha, A., Choon, H., & Sita, P. (2019). Developmental delay: identification and

management at primary care level. Singapore Medical Journal. 60(3), 119-123.