International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The main aim of the journal is to encourage scholars, health providers, and child development and Mental health specialists to publish scholarly articles that include original and review articles, case studies, case reports, miscellany and systemic reviews related to child development and mental health. The Journal is published twice a year in<strong> January - June,&nbsp;</strong>and <strong>July - December</strong> by Rajanagarindra Institute of Child Development, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. This journal is the peer-reviewed journal.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </strong>International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health is an <strong><em>Open Access Journal</em></strong>, and all articles are immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download upon publication.<strong>&nbsp;Print ISSN: 2286 - 7481, E-ISSN: 2586-887X</strong></p> Rajanagarindra Institute of Child Development, Departlment of Mental Health, Ministry of public health Thailand en-US International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health 2286-7481 <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/cdmh/2000px-Cc_by-nc-nd_oo.png" width="113" height="40"></a><br><sub>Creative Commons License<br>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)<br>The authors retain copyright and permit the journal the copyright of first publication</sub></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><sub>Articles, once having passed the review process and accepted for publication in the CDMH Journal, are copyrighted under the CDMH Journal, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health. Please be aware distribution of CDMH Journal content for commercial purposes without permission is expressly prohibited. However, distribution with intent to educate, advocate, or spread awareness within the general public and research communities is permitted and encouraged with the understanding that the CDMH Journal Editorial Board do not hold jurisdiction or liability for any accompanying comments, text, or information from third parties, either in favor for or against the original article’s assertions, conclusions, methodology, or content.</sub></p> Cognitive Strategies for Children with Special Needs in Educational Settings <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive strategies used by Thai occupational therapists for children with special needs in various educational settings. The participants consisted of 55 occupational therapists, using purposive sampling. This study utilized a survey questionnaire, which was examined for content validity by five experts. Data collection was from 55 participants, of which 34 replied. Descriptive statistical analysis was used. The results showed that a sensory cue was used mostly in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Children with intellectual disabilities and ASD had the highest use of cognitive strategies among all disabilities. The therapists used the sensory cue in similar percentages for children with visual and hearing impairment. Various cognitive strategies for those with intellectual disabilities were similarity, including rehearsal technique, rote scripts, association, task simplification, attention to doing, and finger pointing. In addition, attention to doing, was the strategy most preferred among the therapists. On the other hand, task simplification was mostly chosen for children with learning disabilities. Stimuli reduction, organization, and finger pointing were the three strategies most selected for children with speech and language disabilities. The therapists employed self–coaching, task simplification, and finger pointing as the highest strategies for children with behavioral and emotional problems. Moreover, task simplification and the sensory cue were mostly selected for children with multiple disabilities. In conclusion, the occupational therapists used different cognitive strategies for children with special needs in relation to their cognitive problems, to encourage participation in daily routines and schooling tasks.</p> Thanakrit Papha Napalai Chaimaha Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 8 1 11 19 Development of the Hypernasality Modification Program in Thai School-Aged Children with Cleft Lip/Palate <p>Hypernasality with/without articulation disorders are significant speech defects among patients with Cleft Lip and/or Palate (CLP), particularly in school-aged children. Thus, there has not been a systematic program to deal with hypernasality for Thais. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a hypernasality modification program for Thai school-aged children with CLP. The hypernasality modification program in Thai school-aged children was practically developed into a systematic manual based on previous literature reviews. The program consisted of multiple steps written from one word to narrative levels, according to Thai syllable structure instruction. After completing the 1<sup>st</sup> version of the development program, content validity was determined by a panel of five experts. The hypernasality modification program showed excellent validity index (S-CVI = 0.98) and item content validity index (I-CVI = 0.8 to 1.0). After the researchers’ panel review and discussion based on the experts’ suggestions, the 2<sup>nd</sup> version was delivered for the next step in the near future. The results indicated that the hypernasality modification program was valid and could be used for Thai school-aged children with CLP. Further research will be needed to determine the effectiveness of this program.</p> Natthasart Unasri Supaporn Chinchai Benjamas Prathanee Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 8 1 20 29 Validation of the Thai Version of the Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents (PHQ-A) in adolescent psychiatric patients <p>A basic screening tool for depression for adolescents was insufficient in Thailand. Thus, Patient<br>Health Questionnaire for Adolescents (PHQ-A) was translated into Thai. This study aimed to examine<br>the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the PHQ-A. Samples were 11-20 year old patients<br>who attended 12 child and adolescent psychiatric clinics across Thailand. Of 272 adolescent patients,<br>172 patients had depression and 100 patients did not have depression. To evaluate criterion validity,<br>the PHQ-A scores were compared with the clinical diagnosis. Internal consistency and exploratory<br>factor analysis (EFA) were also conducted for item and factor analysis Convergent validity was calculated<br>from correlations between the PHQ-A and the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Centre for<br>Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The internal consistency coefficient of the Thai version<br>of the PHQ-A was 0.92. EFA suggested that one-factor structure of depressive symptoms was suitable<br>for the PHQ-A. The area under the curve of the PHQ-A total score against professional diagnosis was<br>0.88. The results indicated an optimal cut-off point with acceptable sensitivity and specificity of 8.<br>Moreover, the PHQ-A score of 10 was useful for differentiating between patients without depression and<br>those with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD). Convergent validity was good with high<br>correlations for both the CDI and the CES-D (r=0.83 and 0.87, respectively). The Thai version of the<br>PHQ-A is a valid and reliable measurement. The tool is simple and easy to use for screening and monitoring<br>the severity of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents in both clinical and community<br>settings.</p> Wimonwan Panyawong Chosita Pavasuthipaisit Rattanasak Santitadakul Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 8 1 30 40 A Behavioral Modification Program for the Development of Critical Thinking on Heterosexual Relationships Among Early Adolescents <p>This mixed methods research aimed to study the critical thinking on Heterosexual Relationship of young adolescents in order to develop a behavioral modification program of critical thinking on heterosexual relationship among early adolescents and to examine the effects of the behavioral modification program of critical thinking on heterosexual relationship among early adolescents. This study was divided into two phases. The first phase had thirteen people involved and the second phase had forty participants who were qualified to join the study. The results of the study were as follow: the results of the definition of critical thinking on heterosexual relationship behavior was reflective thinking on a good future before engaging in heterosexual activities. Furthermore, this findings showed that there were four factors of critical thinking on heterosexual relationships&nbsp; separated into two internal conditions: attitude toward heterosexual relationship, and self-control; two external conditions: parents providing reason for education, and learning from role models. The result<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">s</span> of the behavioral modification program in the second phase was that after participating in the program, the students who participated in the program had higher level of critical thinking on heterosexual relationship behavior than students who did not participated in the program significantly at .05 level of confidence. The program might be useful for developing the critical thinking on heterosexual relationships. However, the author also suggested that the results of the behavioral modification program in this study is based on the skills in Thai reading and writing. Thus, skills in Thai reading and writing of the participants should be taken to considerations.</p> Sankamon Gornnum Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 8 1 41 52 Psychological Benefits of Physical Activity in Children with Mental Health Disorders <p>This review article examines the latest evidence on the effectiveness of physical activity in treating children with mental health disorders. These disorders can affect growth and development, educational attainment and the ability to lead a productive life. Children with mental health disorders often face isolation, discrimination and stigmatization.&nbsp; Physical activity has been found to be effective in managing emotional self-control and improving social interaction among peers.&nbsp; It can help reduce obesity which may reduce depression and anxiety in children. Structured physical activity can improve overall health, motor function and learning as brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is up regulated during moderate exercise activity and can encourage neuroplasticity.&nbsp; Moderate physical activity should be encouraged and implemented in the pre-school years and continued throughout life for maximal benefit. Research has demonstrated positive outcomes in children with mental health disorders who participate in physical activity and therefore should be considered as a viable treatment approach in the management of a variety of childhood mental health disorders.</p> Janelle K. O’Connell Dennis K. O’Connell Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 8 1 53 62