International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The main aim of the journal is to encourage scholars, health providers, and child development and mental health specialists to publish scholarly articles that include original and review articles, case studies, case reports, miscellany&nbsp;and systemic reviews related to child development and mental health. The Journal&nbsp;is published twice a year in<strong> January - June,&nbsp;</strong>and <strong>July - December</strong> by Rajanagarindra Institute of Child Development, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. This journal is the peer-reviewed journal.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; </strong>International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health is an <strong><em>Open Access Journal</em></strong>, and all articles are immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download upon publication.<strong>&nbsp;Print ISSN: 2286 - 7481, E-ISSN: 2586-887X</strong></p> en-US <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/cdmh/2000px-Cc_by-nc-nd_oo.png"></a><br><sub>Creative Commons License<br>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-N<span class="spell-diff-red">o D</span>erivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)<br></sub><sub>The authors retain copyright and permit the journal the copyright of first publication</sub></p> (Dr. Samai Sirithongthaworn) (Preechaya Phrommin) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 15:17:32 +0700 OJS 60 Working Memory and Learning Difficulties: An Evidence-Based Study in a Public Primary School in Jakarta <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Working memory is the mechanism used for temporary storage during more complex task performance/activity. A child’s learning ability is highly influenced by intelligence and memory. The deficit in working memory is one of the significant risks affecting a child’s learning capacity and causing learning difficulties. The objectives of this study were: trying to identify the proportion of children with learning difficulties, deficits in working memory and elaborating the relationship between them. This was a cross-sectional design study that was done in one public primary school in Jakarta involving 184 students from grades one to six. Working memory was assessed and based on the Indonesian version of Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), which was filled out by the class teachers. Learning difficulties are defined as conditions marked by the students’ achievements below the average academic class scores in one previous term. Chi-Square analysis is applied to find out the association, by using SPSS program for Windows. The study results showed that 87 (47.28%) children had learning difficulties with 11.41% (21 students) of them showing deficits in working memory. Children with working memory deficits had 4.826 times higher risk of learning difficulties compared to children without working memory deficits. Odds ratio was also significant (p&lt;0.05) in the relationship between working memory deficits and learning difficulties in Indonesian literature (OR= 3.373), Mathematics (OR=4.935), and Science (OR=3.075). In conclusion, early detection for working memory deficits in primary students is a must, especially in inclusive primary schools, to prevent further learning difficulties.</p> Susi Rutmalem Bangun, Tjhin Wiguna, Raden Irawati Ismail, Fransiska Kaligis, Noorhana Setyawati Winarsih Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Academic Advisors’ Experiences and Needs Working with Students with Disabilities: A Case of Chiang Mai University <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;The purposes of this research study were to examine 1) advisors’ experiences and needs working with students with disabilities, including awareness of disability issues, individuals’ comfort levels when dealing with various types of disabilities, concerns about students’ accessibility of advisement services, training on disability laws and service provisions, secrets to advisors’ success, and sensitive issues, and 2) students’ learning challenges; relationships with advisors, professors, and friends; managing finances; health issues; and anxiety. The research instruments included 1) a questionnaire for advisors and 2) an open-ended questionnaire for students with disabilities, and 3) focus group forms for advisors and for students with disabilities. Data was collected and analyzed using frequency, percentage, and interpretative analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 66 academic advisors, and 62 students with disabilities at 13 faculties. The return rates were 74.2% (n=49) from advisors and 90.3% (n=56) from students. The results showed that only 20.4% (n=10) of the advisors had taken a college course dealing with disabilities, while 89.7% (n=44) had never received training on the Education for Persons with Disabilities Act (2008) or relevant laws. Some advisors also reported knowledge of students’ disclosures of thoughts about suicide and self-harm. Most students reported having some difficulty in learning, making adjustments, accessing transportation, and having limited access to learning materials. The results suggested that improved advisor-student communication experience is vital in order to achieve and foster a better relationship which would ultimately lead to students’ learning success.</p> Ratchaneekorn Tongsookdee Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health Mon, 30 Dec 2019 15:22:02 +0700 Psychometric Properties of the Language Development Test for Thai Children Aged 5 to 7 Years Old <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The purpose of this research was to develop the Language Development Test for Thai Children aged 5 to 7 years old and to investigate the validity and reliability of the test. This research was divided into three phases: The first phase was to develop the test and to investigate its content validity by 5 experts. The second phase was to try out the test in 15 typical children. The third phase was to test construct validity using a known group method, and to test reliability using internal consistency. In this phase, the test was evaluated with children aged 5-7 years old who were divided into two groups, typical and delayed language development groups. Each group had 90 children who were separated into three age subranges: 5, 6 and 7 years old. Research results found that the test had content validity. Statistical analysis results, using Mann-Whitney U, revealed that the typical groups had significant differences from the delayed language development groups at the 0.01 level.&nbsp; Typical subjects had higher test scores than delayed language development subjects. The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 testing results also indicated that there was a high level of reliability (KR-20 = 0.97-0.99). Therefore, it can be concluded that the test had psychometric properties and is suitable for evaluating language development of Thai children aged 5-7 years old</p> Tawitree Pumnum, Supaporn Chinchai Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health Mon, 30 Dec 2019 15:28:26 +0700 Effect of the Satir Model - Based Psychoeducational Program on Parents and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Parents who have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have constant negative emotions associated with their child's self-care, social skills deficit, and self-regulation difficulties. This study compares the clinical symptoms and medical compliance of children with ASD, and the life congruence and stress of parents who participated in a psychoeducational program based on the Satir Model (PPSM) and those in a standard educational program (SEP). A randomized controlled trial design was conducted. The experimental group of 26 parents of ASD children attended the PPSM, and the control group of 23 parents attended the SEP. Data was collected using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), Patient drug compliance questionnaires, Life Congruence Scale, and Parenting Stress Index-4-SF. The mean age of the 49 participants was 39 years old. Compared to the control group, the clinical symptoms of ASD children in the experimental group were better than the control group at week<sub>28</sub> follow up (mean difference = 13.46, p&lt;0.05); and the percentage of drug compliance in the experimental group was better at post-test (mean difference = 5.26, p&lt;0.05). Parental stress scores between groups were not significantly different at each follow up interval. Experimental group stress scores were reduced at week<sub>16</sub> (p &lt; 0.05) and week<sub>28</sub> follow up (p &lt; 0.01). Control group stress scores were reduced at post-test (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, the experimental group reported better results on the Life Congruence Scale at week<sub>8</sub> follow up (mean difference = 11.54, p&lt;0.05). The Satir model-based psychoeducational program helped parents of children with ASD to be more congruent and less stressed, which consequently improved clinical symptoms and the medical compliance of their children.</p> Soontaree Srikosai, Patarawadee Dornnork, Chulaporn Somchai, Peungpid Sriseub, Siriwan Taweewattanaprecha, Ratana Saipanish Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health Mon, 30 Dec 2019 15:39:09 +0700 Epilepsy and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Biological Perspective <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Childhood epilepsy represents a complex group of seizure disorders with neuropsychological&nbsp;Childhood epilepsy represents a complex group of seizure disorders with neuropsychological&nbsp;deficits and diverse outcomes during developmental stages and later in life. Epilepsy can lead to&nbsp;neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and&nbsp;autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study based on review of literature, the association of etiologically&nbsp;diagnosed childhood epilepsy with the subsequent risks of neurodevelopmental disorders. Papers for this review were selected from established databases like PubMed, Proquest, and ScienceDirect among many. It has shown high comorbidity between epilepsy and intellectual deficits. However, it merely hints at common neurological mechanisms and does not adequately imply causation. Medications for treating epilepsy in children are also implicated in the development of neurodevelopmental disorders later in life. These claims are also explored in the review. There may be common mechanisms between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders, which has to be further explored to develop causal factors. There is not much literature on the neurodevelopmental effects of antiepileptic drugs in the postnatal phase.&nbsp;</p> Jayasankara Reddy, Adithya Ramesh Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health Mon, 30 Dec 2019 15:43:01 +0700 Errata <p>Vol 7 No 2 (2019): July - December 2019</p> CDMH Journal Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0700