Effect of paraquat on red blood cell oxidative stress in individuals with hemoglobin E trait and G6PD deficiency

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Nattaphol Prakobkaew
Natthapak Sillawatthumrong
Supaporn Khamchan
Surachat Buddhisa

Abstract

Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides globally and is a potent inducer of cellular reactive oxygen species, which cause damage to cells and organs in humans and animals. Recently, paraquat was found to affect normal human and animal red blood cells (RBCs). However, the effects of paraquat on hemoglobin E (Hb E) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, commonly observed in Thailand, are unknown. This study investigated the effects of paraquat on oxidative stress and osmotic fragility in RBCs of individuals with Hb E trait and G6PD deficiency in vitro. The RBCs of individuals with Hb E trait and G6PD deficiency and normal controls were exposed to pure or commercially available paraquat dichloride; malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the osmotic fragility were evaluated after coculture for 24 hours. In all groups, RBCs exposed to paraquat had significantly increased MDA levels compared with those exposed to saline solution (controls). The MDA level of RBCs from individuals with Hb E trait was significantly higher than that of RBCs from normal controls. Furthermore, the initial hemolysis of saline- and paraquat-treated RBCs from individuals with Hb E trait and G6PD deficiency was significantly higher than that of RBCs from normal controls. These data suggest that paraquat induces increased lipid peroxidation in RBCs of individuals with Hb E trait and G6PD deficiency and that RBCs of individuals with Hb E trait and G6PD are slightly more fragile than RBCs from normal individuals; however, paraquat does not affect the osmotic fragility of RBCs.

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1.
Prakobkaew N, Sillawatthumrong N, Khamchan S, Buddhisa S. Effect of paraquat on red blood cell oxidative stress in individuals with hemoglobin E trait and G6PD deficiency. Arch AHS [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 15 [cited 2024 Apr. 13];35(3):39-47. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ams/article/view/265095
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