Melanoma: Incidence among the Thai population and the use of a molecular understanding of this cancer to improve the strategy of targeted therapy

Authors

  • Natsupa Wiriyakulsit Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University
  • Patcharee Klomkleang Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University
  • Thanet Sornda Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University
  • Worasak Kaewkong Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University

Abstract

Melanoma is cancer arising from the abnormal growth of melanocytes under the skin layer. There are multifactorial etiologies for melanoma development,especiallythe ultraviolet (UV) derived from daily sunlight, which accelerates DNA damage. Thailand’s geography increases the risk of melanoma among the Thai population. Remarkably, there are a relatively small number of melanoma cases in Thailand, but the mortality rate is high at 48.08%. It is crucial to provide practical prevention guidelines and early diagnosis to fulfill the critical objective of ensuring that patients receive appropriate treatment. This article summarized the evidence on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and especially the molecular mechanism of melanoma development and progression. Ten years of data on the incidence of melanoma among the Thai population during 2010-2019 were collected from the cancer registry of the National Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Services, Ministry of Public Health,Thailand. Remarkably,10-years incidence reveals a continuous registry of new melanoma patients. In addition, this article discussed the basis for targeted therapy of melanoma using molecular target identification. Several in vitro and in vivo studies were reviewed dealing with the use of several gene targeting substances for melanoma treatment, including mutated BRAF targeting by Vemurafenib and Dabrafenib, apoptotic inducing by Veliparib (ABT-888), or correcting the splicing factor dysregulation by SRPIN340 and SPHINX31, which may serve as alternative molecular strategies for melanoma treatment.

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References

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Published

2021-11-18