Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder and systemic lupus erythematosus
Keywords:Systemic lupus erythematosus, transverse myelitis, aquaporin four antibodies, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare autoimmune–mediated demyelinating inflammatory disease that effects the central nervous system. The characteristic symptoms of NMOSD are optic neuritis or acute transverse myelitis. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibody is a specific serological marker for this disease. NMOSD has been reported as either a manifestation of SLE or as a coexisting condition of other autoimmune diseases. This report discussed a case of a 34-year-old female patient who initially presented with a right-sided weakness for two months. She had progressed to quadriparesis and bladder dysfunction within a few days. She had positive autoimmune serology tests indicating for SLE with a history of nephrotic syndrome. In addition, she had AQP-4 antibodies in CSF and the MRI cervical spine showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. The evidences indicated that she has NMOSD with SLE. A prompt diagnosis and treatments are essential to decrease morbidity and mortality. There are a few literatures regarding NMOSD with coexisting SLE, and more information is needed to understand. A high index of suspicion of this rare disease is required to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment.
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