Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract Attenuates Interleukin-1β-Induced Inflammation in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
Keywords:Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala, Anti-inflammation, Human retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 cells
Inflammation in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a crucial event in the initiation of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ripe fruit of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala, or “Ma-kiang,” contains abundant phytochemicals, especially anthocyanin, which is a plentiful source of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effects of this ripe fruit on RPE cells have not yet been studied. The present research investigated the inhibitory effect of C. nervosum var. paniala fruit extract on interleukin (IL)-1β-mediated inflammation in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19). The ripe fruits of C. nervosum var. paniala were extracted using ethanol (CEE). Total anthocyanin content of the extract was analyzed using spectrophotometry, which showed high total anthocyanin content (31.54 ± 0.53 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside [C3G] equivalent/100 g DW). For the cell-based investigation, ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with CEE (5-500 µg/ml) or C3G at 100 µM for 1 h prior to co-incubation with or without IL-1β (0.1 ng/ml) for 24 h, and cell viability measured by MTT assay. Thereafter, a culture medium was collected to detect inflammatory mediators, namely, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 using ELISA kit assays. Our results showed that CEE and C3G treatments at all concentrations were not toxic. They also exhibited good potential to significantly inhibit IL-1β-induced inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in ARPE-19 cells. Consequently, our findings suggest that CEE and its major anthocyanin C3G have good anti-inflammatory potential. This fruit might be utilized as a natural alternative product to prevent inflammation-related AMD.
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