Development of Food Service Management Course Curriculum for Lay-Chefs in Primary Schools in Bangkok
Keywords:SCHOOL LAY-CHEFS SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM FOODSERVICE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PROGRAM, School lay-chefs, School lunch program, Food service management training program
Malnutrition in children is a public health problem that several countries are concerned about. In Thailand, school lunch program is one of several interventions that involve food, nutrition, and health aspects. School lay-chefs are important stakeholder of school lunch management, but they do not have appropriate training programs on nutritional knowledge and foodservice management. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the training program for lay-chefs cooking for school lunch program in Bangkok. The study consisted of 2 phases. The first phase was a formative research to understand the situation of school lunch management, barriers and supportive factors. We did in-depth interview with principals, nutrition teachers, and lay-chefs from primary schools. A blended coding scheme was used to identify the key themes and sub-themes. Information about relationships between factors in school environment and children health was linked by using hurricane diagram. The second phase was to develop the training program. The formative results were used for designing the program. The training program was advised by 3 experts and evaluated appropriateness of course by 3 school lay-chefs. The results of formative phase found that school lay-chefs managed school foods, but they had no nutrition knowledge. Although there were nutrition handbook and training, they were not appropriate with school lay-chefs who had low level of literacy skills. The formative results, literature reviews, and other related sources were used to develop course curriculum. The 5 modules of the program consisted of: 1) school meal planning, 2) food exchange and food portion size, 3) good quality of raw materials and products, 4) cooking methods that reduce sweet, fat, and salt, and 5) snacks and beverages for school-age children. The training program was incorporated in classroom and workshop sessions.
World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), The World Bank. Levels and trends in child malnutrition: key findings of the 2018 Edition of the joint child malnutrition estimates. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 2018.
Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet. 2014; 30(9945):766-81.
National health examination survey office, Health systems research institute. 4th National health examination survey office report 2008-2009 (Children’s health). Nonthaburi (Thailand): National health examination survey office; 2011.
Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, Venn A, Burns TL, Sabin MA, et al. Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365:1876-85.
Pires A, Martins P, Pereira AM, Silva PV, Marinho J, Marques M, et al. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular changes in a group of obese children. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015; 104(4):266–73.
World Health Organization. Interventions on diet and physical activity: what works: summary report. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 2009.
Waters E, Silva-Sanigorski Ad, Burford BJ, Brown T, Campbel KJ, Gao Y, Armstrong R, et al. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011; 7:1871.
Del Rosso JM. School feeding programs: Improving effectiveness and increasing the benefit to education. A guide for program managers. Washington DC (United States): The World Bank; 1999.
Edelstein, S. Nutrition in public health: A handbook for developing programs and services. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett; 2011.
Mohsuwan L. Story of development of nutritional Thai children for quality of growth. Songkla (Thailand): Prince of Songkla University; 2011.
Ministry of public health, Department of health. The implementation of promoting health schools. Nonthaburi (Thailand): Ministry of public health; 2015.
Ministry of public health, Department of health, Bureau of nutrition. Sanitation female cook's heart love children. Nonthaburi (Thailand): Ministry of public health; 2014.
Praditsorn P. Understanding interaction between school food environments and nutritional status of children in Thailand (Dissertation). Nakhon Pathom, Mahidol University; 2016.
Tiansawad S. Content validity index: critique and recommendation for computation. Nursing Journal. 2007;34:1-9.
Srisa-ard B. Curriculum development and curriculum research. Bangkok: Suwiriyasa rd; 2003.
Yoon HB, Shin JS, Lee SH, Kim DH, Hwang J, Kim EJ, et. al. The Effect of formative program evaluation on continuous program improvement: A case study of a clinical training program in Lao PDR. Korean Med. 2015; 30:1743-7.
Evans DJR, Zeun P, Stanier RA. Motivating student learning using a formative assessment journey. J Anat. 2014; 224:296-303.
Condrasky MD, Baruth M, Wilcox S, Carter C, Jordan JF, Condrasky MD, et al. Cooks training for faith, activity, and nutrition project with AME churches in SC. Eval Program Plann. 2013;37:43–9.
Bistritz L, Kovacs-Burns K, Melita, Avdagovska, McCargar L, Olson K, et al. WellnessRx education initiative: Development and pilot study of nutrition and physical activity education for health sciences students. SAGE Journals. 2015; 1(1):24-36.
Flego A, Herbert J, Gibbs L, Swinburn B, Keating C, Waters E, et al. Methods for the evaluation of the Jamie Oliver Ministry of food program, Australia. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:411.
Flego A, Herbert1 J, Waters E, Gibbs L, Swinburn B, Reynolds J, et al. Jamie’s Ministry of Food: Quasi-experimental evaluation of immediate and sustained impacts of a cooking skills program in Australia. PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):1-18.
How to Cite
Upon acceptance of an article, copyright is belonging to the Nutrition Association of Thailand.