Effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient Thai pregnant women on their child’s somatic growth
Keywords:Water Quality Monitoring, Phraphimonracha Canal, Sainoi Floating Market, Iodine supplementation, Pregnant women, Somatic growth
Thyroid hormones are essential for human growth. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may reduce thyroid hormones level and causes growth retardation in children. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of daily 200 µg iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient Thai pregnant women (median urinary iodine concentration <150 µg/L) on their child’s somatic growth. Five hundred and fourteen pregnant women were randomized to participate in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (RCT) at Ramathibodi hospital. Pregnant women received daily 200 µg iodine or placebo until term. Gestational age at delivery and birth outcomes were collected from hospital record. Anthropometric measurements of the children (weight, height and head circumference) were performed at 1, 2 and 5-6 years of age (between November 2008 and July 2016). The same median gestational age at delivery in both groups was reported (39 weeks) (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in mean birth weight, length and head circumference between the two groups (p>0.05). At 1, 2 and 5-6 years of age, all anthropometric data in children did not differ significantly between groups (p>0.05). The percentage of preterm delivery and low birth weight were higher in the placebo group (4.8% and 4.0%, respectively) than in the iodine group (3.2% and 3.2%, respectively), but had no significant difference. Daily supplementation of 200 µg iodine in mildly iodine-deficient Thai pregnant women did not significantly improve their child’s somatic growth. However, a trend toward a beneficial effect on prevalence of preterm delivery and low birth weight was observed.
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