Insight into the role of the microbiome in obesity and type 2 diabetes


  • ฉัตรวรา อารีวุฒิ Department of medicine, Ramathibodi hospital, Mahidoluniversity


Butyrate, Prebiotic and probiotic, Metabolic disorder


The worldwide prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes has been increasing from 153 to 347 million within 28 years from 1980-2008. In Thailand, the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase. The recent survey found during 2008-2009, Thai people whose age over 15 years was diagnosed with diabetes increasing 6.9% per year. The proportion increase in type 2 diabetes is correlated to the increase prevalence of obesity. Many studies reported that being obesity results in insulin resistance and further can cause type 2 diabetes in the future. Currently, many researchers discovered the benefits of good bacteria that reside in human intestine on metabolic disorder. The substance “Butyrate” is the end product of gut bacteria fermentation. The butyrate substance improves insulin sensitivity, increase satiety, and enhance the balance of human metabolism. This indicates a potential role of gut bacteria, particularly butyrate producing bacteria in metabolic improvement. Conclusion, the increase of intestinal gut good bacteria involve in elevating butyrate production. There are many ways to improve gut good bacteria population, for example, gastric bypass or diet therapy. However, in nutrition aspect, prebiotic food choices which contain non-digestible carbohydrate are recommended. When gut bacteria fermented dietary fiber, butyrate substance is the end-product of the fermentation. High fiber diet has been shown to be another alternative way for obesity to improve their weight and metabolic function.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Ley RE, et al. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2005;102:11070-5.

2. Vrieze A, Van NE, Holleman F, et al. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increase insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:913-6.

3. Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature. 2006;444:1022-3.

4. Qin J, et al. A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2012;490:55-60.

5. Karlsson FH, et al. Gut metanome in European women with normal, impaired and diabetic glucose control. Nature. 2013;498:99-103.

6. Topping DL, Clifton PM. Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: Roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysac-charides. Physiol Rev. 2001;81:1031-64.

7. Gao Z, et al. Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. Diabetes. 2009;58(7):1509-17.

8. Donohoe DR, Garge N, Zhang X, et al. The microbiome and butyrate regulate energy metabolism and autophagy in the mammalian colon. Cell Metab. 2011;13:517-26.

9. Heini AF, et al. Effect of hydrolyzed guar fiber on fasting and postprandial satiety and satiety hormone: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during controlled weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:906-9.

10. Backhed F, Ding H, Wang T, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2004;101:15718-23.

11. Van NE, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, et al. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:407-15.

12. Vrieze A, Van NE, Holleman F, et al. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:913-6.

13. Kootte RS, Vrieze A, Holleman F, et al. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:112-20.

14. Di SA, Morera R, Ciccocioppo R, et al. Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn’s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22:789-94.

15. Yadav, Lee JH, Lloyd J, Walter P, Rane SG. Beneficial metabolic effects of a probiotic via butyrate induced GLP-1 secretion. J Bio Chem. 2013;288:25088-97.

16. Cani PD, et al. Gut microbiota fementation of prebiotics increase satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1236-43.

17. Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. J clin Invest. 2005;115:1111-9.

18. Delaere F, Duchampt A, Mounien L, et al. The role of sodium-coupled glucose co-transporter 3 in the satiety effect of portal glucose sensing. Mol Metab. 2012;2:47-53.

19. Simansky KJ. Seratonergic control of the organization of feeding and satiety. Behav Brain Res. 1996;73:37-42.

20. Ratner C, Ettrup A, Bueter M, et al. Cerebral markers of serotonergic system in rat models of obesity and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:2133-41.

21. Koopman KE, et al. Diet-induced changes in the lean brain: Hypercaloric high-fat-high-sugar snacking decreases serotonin transporters in human hypothalamic region. Molecular metabolism. 2013;2:417-22.

22. Sjostrom L, Lindroos AK, Peltonen M, et al. Swedish Obese Subjects Study Scientific Group, Lifestyle, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric sugery. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2683-93.

23. Zhang H, Dibaise JK, Zuccolo A, et al. Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2009;106:2365-70.

24. Furet JP, Kong LC, Tap J, et al. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: Links with metabolic and lowgrade inflammation markers. Diabetes. 2010;59:3049-57.

25. Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, et al. Selective increase of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxemia. Diabetologia. 2007;50:2374-83.

26. Judprasong K, et al. Investigation of Thai plants as potential sources of fructans and Insulin mainfraction. J Food Comp Anal. 2011;24(4-5):642-9.

27. Hanusch-Enserer U, et al. News in gut-brain communication: A role of peptide YY (PYY) in human obesity and following bariatric surgery. Eur J Clin Invest. 2005;35:425-30.




How to Cite

อารีวุฒิ ฉ. (2016). Insight into the role of the microbiome in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nutrition Association of Thailand, 51(2), 29–38. Retrieved from



Review article