Determination of Infusion Phlebitis from Peripheral Intravenous Catheter from Nurse Perspective

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Pramote Thangkratok
Thanan Supasiri
Nutcharee Jungvanichar
Agnes Chiachuabsilp Chiachuabsilp
Pattrarat Tannukit
Krit Pongpirul


Purpose: Explore the confidence of determining signs/symptoms of phlebitis by nurse practitioners.
Design: Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey
Methods: Fifteen signs/symptoms of phlebitis identified from a systematic review were included in the
questionnaire survey among the nurses from Infusion Nurse Network of Thailand. Respondents were
asked for their confidence in determining each of the 15 signs/symptoms, using a 5-point Likert scale.
Findings: From 344 participants (77.83%) responded to the survey, the mean age was 34.73 years, 98.8%
were female, 77.62% had no experience with phlebitis management. Overall, the nurses were most
confident in determining fever/ pyrexia (X–
= 4.23, SD = 1.01), followed by erythema/ redness (X–
= 4.21,
SD = 0.97), edema/ swelling (X–
= 4.19, SD = 0.96), pain (X–
= 4.17, SD = 0.96), purulence/ exudate (X–
= 3.98,
SD = 1.05) and tenderness (X–
= 3.92, SD = 1.04). Nurses with experience in diagnosing phlebitis have
significantly higher confident level than inexperienced nurses in 10 signs/symptoms (p<0.05). Exploratory
Factor Analysis (EFA) revealed that the signs/ symptoms can be categorized into 3 groups according to
early, intermediate and late stages of the disease.
Conclusion: Majority of the nurse practitioners have various levels of confidence in determining the signs/
symptoms of suspected phlebitis. This might lead to incorrect incidence report and inappropriate
management. This study showed the signs and symptoms that nurse practitioners used in diagnosing
phlebitis which can help creating phlebitis assessment tools and guidelines for phlebitis-diagnosis training
in the future


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Research articles


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