Measurement Model of the Thai Version of Pain Catastrophizing Scale


  • Yosapon Leaungsomnapa Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi
  • Nusara Prasertsri Boromarajonani College of Nursing Sunpasitthiprasong
  • Chuanchom Peaschpunpisal Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi
  • Lalita Dechavoot Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi
  • Pimrat Tokun Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi


Measurement model, Pain catastrophizing


This cross-sectional descriptive research aimed to examine the measurement model of the Thai version of pain catastrophizing scale. The samples were 500 patients with acute and chronic pain who were treated at Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi Province. The research instruments consisted of the demographic questionnaire and the Thai version of pain catastrophizing scale with the reliability of .87. Data were collected from July to December, 2019. Statistics used for data analysis included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and confirmatory factor analysis.

The research results revealed that the model of the Thai version of pain catastrophizing scale had good of fit with empirical data (relative χ2 = 88.73, df = 40, χ2/df = 2.22, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .048, normed fit index [NFI] = .99, and comparative fit index [CFI] = 1). There were three subscales of pain catastrophizing scale including 1) rumination, 2) magnification, and 3) helplessness, three subscales had standardized loading factor ranged from .60 to .97, construct reliability (Rho C) ranged from .78 to .91, and average variance extracted (Rho V) ranged from .54 to .67. This research has illustrated satisfactory psychometric properties of the Thai version of pain catastrophizing scale. We provide evidence for the convergent validity, construct reliability, and construct validity as an instrument for measuring pain catastrophizing in Thai patient with acute and chronic pain.

This research suggests that health professionals should assess patients’ pain catastrophizing to identify vulnerable individuals with severe pain intensity who may be candidates for early and timely intervention efforts to enhance adjustment to pain.


Ahmad, S., Zulkurnain, N. A., & Khairushalimi, F. I. (2016). Assessing the validity and reliability of a measurement model in structural equation modeling (SEM). British Journal of Mathematics & Computer Science, 15(3), 1-8.

Campbell, C. M., Witmer, K., Simango, M., Carteret, A., Loggia, M. L., Campbell, J. N., … Edwards, R. R. (2010). Catastrophizing delays the analgesic effect of distraction. Pain, 149(2), 202-207.

Crombez, G., Eccleston, C., Baeyens, F., & Eelen, P. (1998). When somatic information threatens, pain catastrophizing enhances attentional interference. Pain, 75(2-3), 187-198.

Damme, S. V., Crombez, G., Bijttebier, P., Goubert, L., & Houdenhove, B. V. (2002). A confirmatory factor analysis of the pain catastrophizing scale: Invariant factor structure across clinical and non-clinical populations. Pain, 96(3), 319-324.

Edwards, R. R., Giles, J., Bingham III, C. O., Campbell, C., Haythornthwaite, J. A., & Bathon, J. (2010). Moderator of the negative effects of catastrophizing in arthritis. Pain Medicine, 11(4), 591-599.

Forsythe, L. P., Thorn, B., Day, M., & Shelby, G. (2011). Race and sex differences in primary appraisals, catastrophizing, and experimental pain outcomes. American Pain Society, 12(5), 563-572.

Freeman, A., Pretzer, J., Fleming, B., & Simon, K. M. (2004). Cognitive therapy in the real world establishing a foundation for effective treatment: Clinical applications of cognitive therapy (2nd ed.). New York: Klumer Academic Plenum.

Gaskin, D. J., & Richard, P. (2012). The economic costs of pain in the United States. The Journal of Pain, 13(8), 715-724.

Gelinas, C. (2010). Pain and pain management. In L. D. Urden, K. M. Stacy, & M. E. Lough (Eds.), Critical Care Nursing (pp. 135-159). Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.

Goodin, B. R., McGuire, L., Allshouse, M., Stapleton, L., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Burns, N., … Edwards, R. R. (2009). Associations between catastrophizing and endogeneous pain-inhibitory processes: Sex differences. The Journal of Pain, 10(2), 180-190.

Hair Jr, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010a). Application of SEM multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Hair Jr, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010b). SEM: An introduction multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Hirsh, A. T., George, S. Z., Bialosky, J. E., & Robinson, M. E. (2008). Fear of pain, pain catastrophizing, and acute pain perception: Relative prediction and timing of assessment. The Journal of Pain, 9(9), 806-812.

Hirsh, A. T., George, S. Z., Riley III, J. L., & Robinson, M. E. (2007). An evaluation of the measurement of pain catastrophizing by the coping strategies questionnaire. European Journal of Pain, 11(1), 75-81.

Ip, H. Y., Abrishami, A., Peng, P. W., Wong, J., & Chung, F. (2009). Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: A qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology, 111(3), 657-677.

Izumi, S., Vandermause, R., & Benavides-Vaello, S. (2013). Adapting cognitive interviewing for nursing research. Research in Nursing & Health, 36(6), 623-633.

Khan, R. S., Ahmed, K., Blakewey, E., Skapinakis, P., Nihoyannopoulos, L., Macleod, K., … Athanasiou, T. (2011). Catastrophizing: A predictive factors for postoperative pain. The American Journal of Surgery, 201(1), 122-131.

Lyby, P. S., Aslaksen, P. M., & Flaten, M. A. (2010). Is fear of pain related to placebo analgesia?. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68(4), 369-377.

Meyer, K., Sprott, H., & Mannion, A. F. (2008). Cross-cultural adaption, reliability, and validity of the German version of the pain catastrophizing scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(5), 469-478.

Miro, J., Nieto, R., & Huguet, A. (2008). The Catalan version of the pain catastrophizing scale: A useful instrument to assess catastrophic thinking in whiplash patients. The Journal of Pain, 9(5), 397-406.

Moont, R., Pud, D., Sprecher, E., Sharvit, G., & Yarnitsky, D. (2010). ‘Pain inhibits pain’ mechanisms: Is pain modulation simply due to distraction?. Pain, 150(1), 113-120.

Moriarty, O., McGuire, B. E., & Finn, D. P. (2011). The effect of pain on cognitive function: A review of clinical and preclinical research. Progress in Neurobiology, 93(3), 385-404.

Mularski, R. A., White-Chu, F., Overbay, D., Miller, L., Asch, S. M., & Ganzini, L. (2006). Measuring pain as the 5th vital sign does not improve quality of pain management. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(6), 607-612.

Phongphanngam, S., & Lach, H. W. (2019). Cross-cultural instrument translation and adaptation: Challenges and strategies. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 23(2), 170-179.

Quartana, P. J., Buenaver, L. F., Edwards, R. R., Klick, B., Haythornthwaite, J. A., & Smith, M. T. (2010). Pain catastrophizing and salivary cortisol responses to laboratory pain testing in temporomandibular disorder and healthy participants. Journal of Pain, 11(2), 186-194.

Quartana, P. J., Campbell, C. M., & Edwards, R. R. (2009). Pain catastrophizing: A critical review. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 9(5), 745-758.

Sawyer, J., Haslam, L., Daines, P., & Stilos, K. (2010). Pain prevalence study in a large Canadian teaching hospital. Round 2: lessons learned?. Pain Management Nursing, 11(1), 45-55.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). Correlation a beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated.

Severeijns, R., van den Hout, M. A., Vlaeyen, J. W., & Picavet, H. S. (2002). Pain catastrophizing and general health status in a large Dutch community sample. Pain, 99(1-2), 367-376.

Smeltzer, S. C., Bare, B. G., Hinkle, J. L., & Cheever, K. H. (2008). Pain Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing. Vol.1. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sullivan, M. J. L., Bishop, S. R., & Pivik, J. (1995). The pain catastrophizing scale: Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 7(4), 524-532.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Structural equation modeling using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Thompson, T., Keogh, E., & French, C. C. (2011). Sensory focusing versus distraction and pain: Moderating effects of anxiety sensitivity in males and females. American Pain Society, 12(8), 849-858.

Youngcharoen, P., Aree-U, A., & Saraboon, Y. (2018). Validation of pain catastrophizing scale-Thai version in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 22(3), 236-247.




How to Cite

Leaungsomnapa, Y., Prasertsri, N. ., Peaschpunpisal, C., Dechavoot, L., & Tokun, P. (2020). Measurement Model of the Thai Version of Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Journal of Phrapokklao Nursing College, Chanthaburi, 31(1), 33–42. Retrieved from



Research Report (รายงานการวิจัย)