Effects of cannabis use in pregnant women

Authors

  • Thitiporn Suwanampa Faculty of Nursing, HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science Chulabhorn Royal Academy
  • Tasaneewan Purksametanan Faculty of Nursing, HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science Chulabhorn Royal Academy
  • Thapatlada Kiatlertdecha Faculty of Nursing, HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science Chulabhorn Royal Academy

Keywords:

Cannabis, Pregnant women

Abstract

               With the announcement of the Ministry of Public Health on the use of marijuana for medical and research purposes in 2019 and 2021, research has come out to support the medical benefits of cannabis extracts. Netherlands, New Zealand, and USA have amended the laws to open up opportunities and allow people to use it. Marijuana is mostly used for relaxation, reduce anxiety, nausea and vomiting, relieve pain, and resolve insomnia. Research shows that the use of cannabis has an impact on pregnancy and women of reproductive age. It has an effect to the fetus in short/long term, increased risk of admission to neonatal intensive care and perinatal mortality. It is also found that children born to mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy were at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, affecting the immune system and brain development. From a review of the literature, the use of cannabis, its extracts and products should be avoided by pregnant women and women of child bearing age. Since there is little research on medical cannabis for quality and quantity to conclusively determine pros and cons of its uses in pregnant women. We have to wait till there is a comprehensive study and research on cannabis.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Kanato M, Ritmontri S, Leeatikul P, Yuenyueng S. Report of research papers on cannabis policy and management: A case study of the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Bangkok: Charansanitwong printing; 2015.

The government gazette drugs (7 Vols) in 2019. The government gazette. 2019; 136 Vols; (Part 19a). p. 1-16. (in Thai)

Rattana-anan C. Marijuana: a long way to go [Internet]. 2021 [Cited 2022 April 19]. Available from: https://www.technologychaoban.com

Worathanarat T. Medical marijuana policy complete report of case study: situation, impact, management approach and policy recommendations for Thailand [Internet]. 2020 [Cited 2022 March 10]. Available from: https://cads.in.th/cads/media/upload/159340355

Ministry of Public Health. Committee drive public relations on the use of marijuana for medical purposes: Unlock marijuana for medical [Internet]. 2021 [Cited 2022 March 10]. Available from: https://www.medcannabis.go.th

Chokevivat V. Cannabis: Is It Really a Magic Medicine? J Thai Trad Alt Med 2019; 17(2): 324-40. (in Thai)

Young-Wolff CK, Tucker LY, Alexeeff S, Armstrong MA, Conway A, Weisner C, Goler N. Trends in self-reported and biochemically tested marijuana use among pregnant females in California from 2009-2016. Jama 2017; 318(24): 2490-1.

Young-Wolff KC, Ray GT, Alexeeff SE, Adams SR, Does MB, Ansley D, Avalos LA. Rates of Prenatal cannabis use among pregnant women before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA 2021; 326(17): 1745-47.

Medical council. Advice for medical personnel: Medical cannabis [Internet]. 2019. [Cited 2022 March 10]. Avaliable from: https://tmc.or.th/pdf/fact/guideline_cannabis_101062.pdf

Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Soydaner U, Ozturk E, Schibano D, Simsir Y, et al. Evolution of the cannabinoid and terpene content during the growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from different chemotypes. Journal of natural product 2016; 79(2): 324–31.

Mechoulam R (Ed.). Cannabinoids as therapeutics. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag; 2005.

Russo E. Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency Reconsidered: Current research supports the theory in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel, and other treatment-resistant syndromes. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2016; 1(1): 154-65.

Schultz S, Beyer M. GW pharmaceuticals achieves positive results in phase 2 proof of concept study in glioma. UK: GW Pharmaceuticals: Cambridge; 2017.

Leelawat S, Leelawat K, Narong S, Matangkasombut O. The dual effects of delta (9) tetrahydrocannabinol on cholangiocarcinoma cells: Anti-invasion activity at low concentration and apoptosis induction at high concentration. Cancer Invest 2010; 28(4): 357-63.

International narcotics control board. Report of the international narcotics control board for 2019. Vienna: United Nations Publication; 2020.

American college of obstetricians and gynecologists committee on obstetric practice. Committee opinion: Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol 2017; 130(4): 205–9.

Bailey JR, Cunny HC, Paule MG, Slikker W Jr. Fetal disposition of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during late pregnancy in the rhesus monkey. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1987; 90(2): 315-21.

Behnke M, Smith VC; Committee on substance abuse; Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Prenatal substance abuse: Short-and long-term effects on the exposed fetus. Pediatrics 2013; 131(3): 1009-24.

Gunn JK, Rosales CB, Center KE, Nunez A, Gibson SJ, Christ C, et al. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open2016; 6(4): 1-8.

Hoffman MC, Hunter SK, D'Alessandro A, Noonan K,Wyrwa A, Freedman R. Interaction of maternal choline levels and prenatal marijuana’s effects on the offspring. Psychol Med 2020; 50(10): 1716-26.

Rodriguez CE, Sheeder J, Allshouse AA, Scott, Wymore E, Hopfer C, et al. Marijuana use in young mothers and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A retrospective cohort study. BJOG 2019; 126(12): 1491-97.

Mumford SL, Flannagan KS, Radoc JG, Sjaarda LA, Zolton JR, et al. Cannabis use while trying to conceive: a prospective cohort study evaluating associations with fecundability, live birth and pregnancy loss. Human Reproduction 2021; 36(5): 1405-15.

Mumford SL, Flannagan KS, Radoc JG, Sjaarda LA, Zolton JR, Metz TD, et al. Cannabis use while trying to conceive: a prospective cohort study evaluating associations with fecundability, live birth and pregnancy loss. Human Reproduction 2021; 36(5): 1405-15.

Brents LK. Marijuana, the endocannabinoid system and the female reproductive System. Yale J Biol Med 2016: 89(2): 175-91.

Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S, Natarajan L, Chen RV. A prospective study of the effects of female and male marijuana use on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194(2): 369-76.

Mendelson JH, Mello NK, Ellingboe J, Skupny AS, Lex BW, Griffin M. Marihuana smoking suppresses luteinizing hormone in women. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1986; 237(3): 862-66.

Whan LB, West MCL, McClure N, Lewis SEM. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, on human sperm function in vitro. Fertil Steril 2006; 85(3): 653-60.

Ryan KS, Bash JC, Hanna CB, Hedges JC, Lo JO. Effects of marijuana on reproductive health: preconception and gestational effects. Curr opin endocrinol diabetes obes 2021; 28(6): 558-65.

Fried PA, Watkinson, Willan A. Marijuana use during pregnancy and decreased length of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984; 150(1): 23-7.

Ryan SA, Ammerman SD, O'Connor ME. Marijuana use during pregnancy and breastfeeding: implications for neonatal and childhood outcomes. Pediatrics 2018; 142(3): 1-15.

Martin CE, Longinaker N, Mark K, Chisolm MS, Terplan M. Recent trends in treatment admissions for marijuana use during pregnancy. Journal of addiction medicine (2015); 9(2): 99-104.

Young-Wolff KC, Sarovar V, Tucker L, et al. Association of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy with prenatal marijuana use. JAMA intern med 2018; 178(10):1423–24.

Greiner KS, Lo JO, Speranza RJ, Rincon M, Burwick RM. Marijuana use and pregnancy outcomes among women with hypertension in pregnancy. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 2020; 1-8.

Gabrhelik R, Mahicb M, Lund IO, Bramnessb J, Selmerb R, Skovlund E, et al. Cannabis use during pregnancy and risk of adverse birth outcomes: A longitudinal cohort study. European addition research 2021; 27(2): 131-41.

Nimsomboon T. Toxicology of cannabis. Journal of hospital pharmacy 2020; 30(2): 125-36.

Harunkasem N. Shaping the media's social agenda on medical marijuana report. [Internet]. 2021. [Cited 2022 April 20]. Avaliable from: https://cads.in.th/cads/media/upload/1616467628Info%20pdf.pdf

Tienthong T, Suwonnaroop N, Boonyamalik P, Kaewboonchoo O. Factors associated with health literacy in an application of Cannabis oil in patients with non-communicable diseases in Bangkok. [Internet]. 2020. [Cited 2021 December 11]. Avaliable from: https://cads.in.th/cads/content?id=198

Published

2022-04-30

How to Cite

Suwanampa ธ., Purksametanan ท., & Kiatlertdecha ฐ. (2022). Effects of cannabis use in pregnant women. Journal of Public Health Nursing, 36(1), 153–167. Retrieved from https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/phn/article/view/254626

Issue

Section

Academic Articles