The development of independent study model using blended learning among master of nursing science students

Main Article Content



This research and development study aimed to develop the learning model and to explore the level of self-directed learning. The sample consisted of 25 graduate students enrolled in 2018 academic year. The research process included 4 steps: 1) exploring the study context 2) setting the objectives 3) developing the teaching model and 4) implementing and evaluating using self-directed learning ability questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = .92). The result showed that the model consisted of 3 phases: 1) preparation 2) blended learning process, and 3) outcomes evaluation. Students rated their overall self-directed learning ability after studied at the high level (M = 4.2, SD = 0.28).


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
THANIWATTANANON, ploenpit. (2019). The development of independent study model using blended learning among master of nursing science students. Journal of Nursing Science and Health, 42(3), 84-95. Retrieved from


1. Panich V. 21st Century skills learning. Bangkok: S. Charoen Printing; 2013.
2. Kala S, Isaramalai S, Pohthong A. Electronic learning and constructivism: a model for nursing education. Nurse Education Today 2010; 30(1): 61-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2009.06.002.
3. South African College of Business. Face to face learning vs online distance learning [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 Jan 8]. Available from:
4. Mingsiritham K. Self-directed learning on web-based learning. Journal of Liberal Arts, Prince of Songkla University 2013; 32(1): 6-13.
5. Kanjanawasee S. Research and development for Thai education. Silpakorn educational Research Journal 2016; 8(2): 1-18.
6. Bersin J. The blended learning book: best practices, proven methodologies, and lessons learned. San Francisco: Pfeiffer; 2004.
7. Lalima, Dangwal KL. Blended learning: an innovative approach. Universal Journal of Educational Research 2017; 5(1): 129-36.
8. Boyer al. Self-Directed Learning: A Tool for Lifelong Learning. Journal of marketing education 2014; 36(1): 20-32.
9. Guglielmino LM. Why self-directed learning?. International Journal of Self-directed Learning 2008; 5(1): 1-11.
10. Charoenchim S, et al. Self-directed learning ability of pre-service teachers. Faculty of Education and Development Sciences: Kasetsart University; 2012.
11. Guglielmino LM. Development of the self-directed learning readiness scale [dissertation]. Athens (GA): University of Georgia; 1977.
12. Kusol K, Samienpetch T. Self-directed learning ability as a learning outcomes of problem-based learning of Walailak university nursing students. Journal of Nursing and Education 2015; 8(3): 127-38.
13. Eagleton S. Designing blended learning interventions for the 21st century student. Adv Physiol Educ 2017; 41: 203-11.
14. Sze-yeng F, Hussain RMR. Self-directed learning in a socioconstructivist learning environment. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2010; 9: 1913-17.
15. Boelens R, Wever BD, Voet M. Four key challenges to the design of blend learning: a systematic review. Educational Research Review 2017; 22: 1-18.
16. Shand K, Glassett FS, Costa V. Principles of course redesign: a model for blended learning. In: Chamblee G, Langub L, editors. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher; Education International Conference. United States: Savannah (GA); 2016: 378-89.
17. Printrich PR, Zusho A. Student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom. In: Perry RP, Smart JC, editors. The scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education: An evidence based perspective. The Netherland: Springer; 2007: 731-810.
18. Vanslambrouck S, Zhu C, Pynoo B, Thomas V, Lombaerts K, Tondeur J. An in-depth analysis of adult students in blended environments: do they regulated their learning in an ‘old school’ way?. Computers & Education 2019; 128: 75-87.
19. The Royer Center for learning and Academic Technologies. Blended learning [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2018 Oct 28]. Available from:
20. Thorne K. Blended learning: how to integrate online and traditional learning. London: Kogan Page; 2003.