Learning and Health Impacts of COVID-19 Prevention and Control Measures among the Hill Tribe Schoolchildren of Northern Thailand: A Teacher’s Perspective
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacts all populations accross different dimensions. Schoolchildren have been one of the most affected groups by the prevention and control measures that were implemented. This study aimed to understand the impact of the prevention and control measures against COVID-19 on hill tribe schoolchildren.
Method: The study included school directors and teachers working in schools and daycare centers (DCCs) in the hill tribe villages. A qualitative method was used to elicit information about the impacts of COVID-19 prevention and control measures in teaching, learning, and health among hill tribe schoolchildren. The participants were asked several questions. Thematic analysis was used to extract information and study the patterns of the findings.
Results: A total of 22 participants, seven school directors, and 15 teachers from four schools and three DCCs were selected to participate in the study. Among them, 72.7% were female, 63.6% had a bachelor’s degree, and the mean age was 44.1 years. Educational and health impacts were found with the implementation of prevention and control measures for COVID-19, and two major forms were detected: educational and health impacts. Regarding the impact on education, the students were found to have difficulties in online learning platforms. In addition, poor parental support and the inability to buy educational tools and equipment for online learning platforms made it more challenging. In terms of health, the students lost the opportunity to be cared for by professionals, lacked practice of interpersonal skills, and lacked access to healthy food.
Conclusion: With no better option, hill tribe students were forced to modify their learning styles without any learning materials or equipment available. The children were not able to consume the recommended quantity and quality of food provided by the government at school and DCCs. All government offices including school directors should emphasize on improvement the approaches to ensure that students are able to learn on their maximized capacity in learning inducing the method to provide lunch with quality and quantity food for all students.
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020
World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus.
Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, Zaki R, Tan Z, Bibi S, et al. The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? International Journal of Epidemiology 2020;49:717–26. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa033.
Chakraborty I, Maity P. COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Science of The Total Environment 2020;728:138882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138882.
Haleem A, Javaid M, Vaishya R. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life. Current Medicine Research and Practice 2020;10:78–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011.
Mandal CC, Panwar MS. Can the summer temperatures reduce COVID-19 cases? Public Health 2020;185:72–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.05.065.
World Health Organization (WHO). Global situation: covid-19. Available from: https://covid19.who.int.
Tarkar P. Impact of covid-19 pandemic on education system. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. 2020; 29(9s): 3812-4.
Engzell P, Frey A, Verhagen MD. Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2021;118:e2022376118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022376118.
Polydoros G, Alasona N. Teaching and learning during the covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Research and Opinion. 2021; 8(6): 2954-63.
Srichan P, Apidechkul T, Tamornpark R, Yeemard F, Khunthason S, Kitchanapaiboon S, et.al. Knowledge, attitudes and preparedness to respond to COVID-19 among the border population of northern Thailand in the early period of the pandemic: a cross-sectional study. WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health. 2020; 9(2): 118-125.
Chomchoei C, Yeemard F, Tamornpark R, Apidechkul T, Upala P. Burden and factors associated with hypertension among the adult population of the Lisu hill tribe, northern Thailand. Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine. 2021; 3(1): 9-15.
Suratana S, Tamornpark R, Apidechkul T, Srichan P, Mulikaburt T, Wongnuch P, et al. Impacts of and survival adaptations to the COVID-19 pandemic among the hill tribe population of northern Thailand: A qualitative study. PLoS ONE 2021;16:e0252326. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252326.
Chen Q, Kong Y, Gao W, Mo L. Effects of Socioeconomic Status, Parent–Child Relationship, and Learning Motivation on Reading Ability. Front Psychol 2018;9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01297.
Tan CY, Lyu M, Peng B. Academic Benefits from Parental Involvement are Stratified by Parental Socioeconomic Status: A Meta-analysis. Parenting 2019;20:241–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2019.1694836.
Li X, Yang H, Wang H, Jia J. Family socioeconomic status and home-based parental involvement: a mediation analysis of parental attitudes and expectations. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020; 116:105111.
Neece C, McIntyre LL, Fenning R. Examining the impact of COVID‐19 in ethnically diverse families with young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12769.
Asbury K, Fox L, Deniz E, Code A, Toseeb U. How is COVID-19 Affecting the Mental Health of Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities and Their Families? J Autism Dev Disord 2020;51:1772–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04577-2.
Rasmitadila R, Aliyyah RR, Rachmadtullah R, Samsudin A, Syaodih E, Nurtanto M, et al. The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: A Case Study in Indonesia. J Ethn Cult Stud 2020;7:90. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/388.
Panaoura R. Parental involvement in children's mathematics learning before and during the period of the COVID-19. Social Education Research. 2021:65-74. https://doi.org/10.37256/ser.212021547
Cullen KW, Chen T-A. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake. Preventive Medicine Reports 2017;5:82–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.11.016.
Asakura K, Sasaki S. School lunches in Japan: their contribution to healthier nutrient intake among elementary-school and junior high-school children. Public Health Nutr 2017;20:1523–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980017000374.
Kinsey EW, Hecht AA, Dunn CG, Levi R, Read MA, Smith C, et al. School Closures During COVID-19: Opportunities for Innovation in Meal Service. Am J Public Health 2020;110:1635–43. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2020.305875.
Cohen JFW, Hecht AA, McLoughlin GM, Turner L, Schwartz MB. Universal School Meals and Associations with Student Participation, Attendance, Academic Performance, Diet Quality, Food Security, and Body Mass Index: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2021;13:911. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030911.
Myszkowska-Ryciak J, Harton A. Impact of Nutrition Education on the Compliance with Model Food Ration in 231 Preschools, Poland: Results of Eating Healthy, Growing Healthy Program. Nutrients 2018;10:1427. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101427.
Harton A, Myszkowska-Ryciak J. Types of Milk and/or Its Substitutes Are Given to Children (6–36 Months) in Nurseries in Poland: Data from the Research and Education Project “Eating Healthy, Growing Healthy.” IJERPH 2018;15:2789. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122789.
Almeida NB, Menezes RCE de, Sobral K dos S, Gomes JF, Longo-Silva G, Silveira JAC da. Pre- and perinatal factors associated with weight gain among preschool children enrolled at day care centers. Rev Paul Pediatr 2020;38. https://doi.org/10.1590/1984-0462/2020/38/2019060.
Schwabish J, Joo N, Waxman E, Spievack N. Strategies and challenges in feeding out-of-school students. Available from: https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication /102095/strategies-and-challenges-in-feeding-out-of-school-students.pdf.
Alsoud AR, Harasis AA. The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Student’s E-Learning Experience in Jordan. JTAER 2021;16:1404–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/jtaer16050079.
Espino-Díaz L, Fernandez-Caminero G, Hernandez-Lloret C-M, Gonzalez-Gonzalez H, Alvarez-Castillo J-L. Analyzing the Impact of COVID-19 on Education Professionals. Toward a Paradigm Shift: ICT and Neuroeducation as a Binomial of Action. Sustainability 2020;12:5646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145646.
Pokhrel S, Chhetri R. A Literature Review on Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Teaching and Learning. Higher Education for the Future 2021;8:133–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/2347631120983481.
Vanpetch Y, Sattayathamrongthian M. The challenge and opportunities of thailand education due to the covid-19 pandemic: case study of Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. E3S Web Conf 2020;210:18058. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202021018058.
United Nations Thailand. Social impact assessment of covid-19 in Thailand. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/thailand/media/5071/file/Social%20Impact%20Assessment%20of%20COVID-19%20in%20Thailand.pdf
Rajmil L, Hjern A, Boran P, Gunnlaugsson G, Kraus de Camargo O, Raman S. Impact of lockdown and school closure on children’s health and well-being during the first wave of COVID-19: a narrative review. Bmjpo 2021;5:e001043. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2021-001043.
Chaabane S, Doraiswamy S, Chaabna K, Mamtani R, Cheema S. The Impact of COVID-19 School Closure on Child and Adolescent Health: A Rapid Systematic Review. Children 2021;8:415. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050415.
The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF). The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition. Available from: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/COVID-19_Missing_More_Than_a_Classroom_The_impact_of_school_closures_on_childrens_nutrition.pdf
Mayurasakorn K, Pinsawas B, Mongkolsucharitkul P, Sranacharoenpong K, Damapong S. School closure, COVID ‐19 and lunch programme: Unprecedented undernutrition crisis in low‐middle income countries. J Paediatr Child Health 2020;56:1013–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.15018.
Copyright (c) 2021 Thanatchaporn Mulikaburt, Anusorn Udplong , Soontaree Suratana
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
JHSAM publishes all articles in full open access, meaning unlimited use and reuse of articles with appropriate credit to the authors.
All our articles are published under a Creative Commons "CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0". License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,
provided that the original work is properly cited and is used for noncommercial purposes.