Parents’ experiences in the management of early childhood challenging behaviours: A descriptive qualitative study


  • Jittavee Kiartsuwan Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Mae Hong Son College
  • Peeraphan Apiwongwarn Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Mae Hong Son College
  • Ploypatcha Kaewwiset Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Mae Hong Son College
  • Prissana Naunboonruang Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Mae Hong Son College
  • Supaporn Somphan Sankampaeng Hospital, Sankampaeng District, Chiang Mai Province
  • Orawan Phadungkarn Chiang Mai Rajabhat University Demonstration School, Mae Hong Son College
  • Sompratthana Sudjainark Nurse instructor, Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chonburi, Faculty of Nursing Faculty of Nursing, Praboromrajchanok Institute


Challenging behaviours, ABC model, Childhood, Parents


Appropriate and effective management of challenging behaviours helps prevent young children from repeating the behaviours leading to the prevention of short-term and long-term negative consequences. This descriptive qualitative study was to describe parents’ management of early childhood challenging behaviours based on Antecedent-Behaviour-Consequence model (ABC model). The participants were 15 parents of children of early childhood age. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews. Content analysis was performed. Results: Challenging behaviours from parents’ perspective were classified into five groups: aggression and violence, self-centeredness and fussiness, resistance and violation of parental orders, violation of social rules and etiquettes and indirect expression of needs. None of the parents had ever received training on ABC management of challenging behaviours. This resulted in nonsystematic and inconsistent use of the ABC strategies. A combination of positive and negative strategies was evident. Positive strategies included setting agreement prior to exposure to trigger, delayed gratification and praising. Negative strategies included instant gratification and indifference. Lack of knowledge and skills about systematic management of early childhood challenging behaviours resulted in suboptimal use of antecedent, behaviour and consequence strategies. A training based on ABC model should be offered to parents.


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How to Cite

Kiartsuwan, J., Apiwongwarn, P., Kaewwiset, P. ., Naunboonruang, P. ., Somphan, S. ., Phadungkarn, O. ., & Sudjainark, S. . (2023). Parents’ experiences in the management of early childhood challenging behaviours: A descriptive qualitative study. Journal of Nursing and Health Research, 24(3), 32–46. Retrieved from



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