The mediating effect of academic self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived parental academic pressure and test anxiety among Thai high-school students in Bangkok

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Pichaporn Mongkoladisai
Jirada Prasartpornsirichoke
Nuttorn Pityaratstian


Objective: Primary objectives: 1. To investigate the relationship between perceived parental academic pressure and test anxiety related to midterm exams in Thai high-school students. 2. To investigate the mediating effect of academic self-efficacy in this relationship. Secondary objective: 1. To study the prevalence of Thai high-school students with high level of test anxiety related to midterm exams.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. 235 High-school students from two public schools under the Bangkok Secondary Educational Service Area 1 completed questionnaires in June 2022. Questionnaires were composed of demographic questionnaire, Thai version of FRIEDBEN Test Anxiety Scale (FTA) questionnaire, Thai version of Perceived Parental Academic Pressure (PPAPS) questionnaire and Thai version of Academic self-efficacy scales of Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C) questionnaire. Pearson’s correlational coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between perceived parental academic pressure and test anxiety. Bootstrapping was used to examine the indirect effect of perceived parental academic pressure on test anxiety.

Results: 85.1% of students were male. Mean age was 16.22± 0.95 years old. Data was collected one month prior to midterm exam. 83.8% of students did not attend cram school. Prevalence of students with high level of test anxiety was 4.7 percent. Perceived parental academic pressure had both direct effect (b = .535, 95%Cl: .444, .626) and indirect effect (b = -.038, 95%CI: -.075, -.004) on test anxiety. Academic self-efficacy was the mediating factor of this relationship.

Conclusion: Perceived parental academic pressure had not only directly positive effect on test anxiety, but also indirectly negative effect on test anxiety via increasing academic self-efficacy. However directly positive effect of perceived parental academic pressure was beyond indirectly negative effect.

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Mongkoladisai, P., Prasartpornsirichoke, J., & Pityaratstian, N. (2023). The mediating effect of academic self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived parental academic pressure and test anxiety among Thai high-school students in Bangkok. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 68(2), 153–162. Retrieved from
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