Psychometric Properties of the Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale - Thai Version (ZEF-T)

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Veevarin Charoenporn
Sirashat Hanvivattanakul
Kanathip Jongmekwamsuk
Rinradee Lenavat
Korravit Hanvivattanakul
Thammanard Charernboon


Objectives: Overuse of video meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to the new mental health problem called "Zoom fatigue". The aim of the study was to examine validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale (ZEF-T).

Methods: The ZEF-T was developed through forward and backward translation techniques and its content validity was evaluated by 5 psychiatrists. The final version was tested on 386 medical students from Thammasat University. Known-group validity was assessed by comparing the ZEF-T score among the group of medical students who attend video meetings with different frequencies. For convergent validity, the association between the ZEF-T score and Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey (MBI-SS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were determined by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The test-retest reliability of the ZEF-T was evaluated by using intraclass correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

Results: The results demonstrated that ZEF-T has excellent content validity with an average-content validity index of 0.97. The total ZEF-T score positively correlated with emotion exhaustion, cynicism, and depression score (r = 0.42, 0.38, 0.45, respectively, p<0.001 all), but negatively correlated with professional efficacy (r = -0.23, p<0.001). For known-group validity, participants with high video meetings (≥ 3 sessions/day) had significantly higher total ZEF-T scores than those with low meetings (0-2 sessions/day) [49.9(11.3) vs 41.1(12.2), p<0.001]. Internal consistency by the Cronbach’s alpha for the ZEF-T was 0.93, and test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation was 0.94 (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale – Thai version (ZEF-T) was proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring zoom fatigue in university student contexts.

Article Details

How to Cite
Charoenporn, V., Hanvivattanakul, S. ., Jongmekwamsuk, K., Lenavat, R., Hanvivattanakul, K., & Charernboon, T. (2022). Psychometric Properties of the Zoom Exhaustion & Fatigue Scale - Thai Version (ZEF-T). Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 67(4). Retrieved from
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