Predictive Factors of Depressive Symptoms in COVID-19 Patients at Srinagarind Hospital and Field Hospital Khonkean University

Main Article Content

Hattakorn Samretdee
Rossama Somchai
Sasitorn Duangmun
Wachiraporn Luecha
Pongsatorn Paholpak
Narak Chadbunchachai
Phongpisut Poonsawatphong


Object: To create a predictive model of depression in COVID-19 patients.

Method: A cross-sectional analysis of infected COVID-19 patients who were quarantined at Srinagarind hospital and field hospital Khonkean university. Data were collected from 1st April to 31st September 2021 with a total of 959 cases. Patients were assessed by the questionnaire containing 9 depression items (9Q), 8 suicidal risk items (8Q), 5 stress items (ST-5), and hospital anxiety and depression scale (Thai HADS). Data were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression.

Results: Anxiety (β=0.39, p-value=0.00) and depression (β=0.78, p-value=0.00) can predict 64% of depression (R2=0.64, F=855.34, p-value=0.00). The predictive model of depression by using raw score was 9Q = -0.09 + (0.39)HADS anxiety + (0.78)ST5. 

Conclusion: Predicting factors of depression are anxiety and stress.

Article Details

How to Cite
Samretdee, H. ., Somchai, R. ., Duangmun, S. ., Luecha, W. ., Paholpak, P. ., Chadbunchachai, N. ., & Poonsawatphong, P. . (2022). Predictive Factors of Depressive Symptoms in COVID-19 Patients at Srinagarind Hospital and Field Hospital Khonkean University. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 67(1), 35–44. Retrieved from
Original Articles
Author Biography

Hattakorn Samretdee, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University



Bachelor of Science in Psychology                                          B.S. (Psychology)

Chiang Mai University

Chiang Mai, Thailand



Master of Public Health Program  in Biostatistics               M.P.H. (Biostatistics)

Khon Kaen University

Khon Kaen, Thailand



Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr [Internet]. 2020;87(4):281–6. Available from:

Otter JA, Donskey C, Yezli S, Douthwaite S, Goldenberg SD, Weber DJ. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination. J Hosp Infect [Internet]. 2015/10/03. 2016 Mar;92(3):235–50. Available from:

Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect [Internet]. 2020/02/06. 2020 Mar;104(3):246–51. Available from:

WHO. What are the symptoms of COVID-19? [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 9]. p. 1. Available from:

Wang L, Li J, Guo S, Xie N, Yao L, Cao Y, et al. Real-time estimation and prediction of mortality caused by COVID-19 with patient information based algorithm. Sci Total Environ [Internet]. 2020/04/08. 2020 Jul 20;727:138394. Available from:

Parohan M, Yaghoubi S, Seraji A, Javanbakht MH, Sarraf P, Djalali M. Risk factors for mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Aging Male. 2020;23(5):1416–24.

Madabhavi I, Sarkar M, Kadakol N. COVID-19: a review. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2020;90(2):253.

WHO. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 9]. p. 1. Available from:

กรมควบคุมโรค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข. โรคติดเชื้อไวรัสโคโรนา 2019 (COVID-19) [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 9]. p. 1. Available from:

Wilasang C, Jitsuk N, Sararat C, Modchang C. Reconstruction of the transmission dynamics of the first COVID-19 epidemic wave in Thailand. 2021;

Rajatanavin N, Tuangratananon T, Suphanchaimat R, Tangcharoensathien V. Responding to the COVID-19 second wave in Thailand by diversifying and adapting lessons from the first wave. BMJ Glob Heal. 2021;6(7):e006178.

Tanomkiat W. The third COVID-19 wave in Thailand. ASEAN J Radiol. 2021;22(1):3–4.

กองบริหารระบบบริการสุขภาพจิต กรมสุขภาพจิต กระทรวงสาธารณสุข. แนวทางการดูแลจิตใจสำหรับโรงพยาบาลสนาม ฉบับปรับปรุง ครั้งที่ 1 [Internet]. 2564. 12 p. Available from:

Preti E, Di Mattei V, Perego G, Ferrari F, Mazzetti M, Taranto P, et al. The Psychological Impact of Epidemic and Pandemic Outbreaks on Healthcare Workers: Rapid Review of the Evidence. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2020 Jul;22(8):43.

Khan S, Siddique R, Li H, Ali A, Shereen MA, Bashir N, et al. Impact of coronavirus outbreak on psychological health. J Glob Health [Internet]. 2020 Jun;10(1):10331. Available from:

Deng J, Zhou F, Hou W, Silver Z, Wong CY, Chang O, et al. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances in COVID-19 patients: a meta-analysis. Ann N Y Acad Sci [Internet]. 2020/10/02. 2021 Feb;1486(1):90–111. Available from:

Tang F, Liang J, Zhang H, Kelifa MM, He Q, Wang P. COVID-19 related depression and anxiety among quarantined respondents. Psychol Health. 2021;36(2):164–78.

Taquet M, Luciano S, Geddes JR, Harrison PJ. Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: retrospective cohort studies of 62 354 COVID-19 cases in the USA. The Lancet Psychiatry [Internet]. 2021;8(2):130–40. Available from:

Mamun MA. Suicide and suicidal behaviors in the context of CoViD-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: a systematic review. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2021;14:695.

Maurer DM. Screening for depression. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(2):139–44.

Kongsuk T, Arunpongpaisal S, Janthong S, Prukkanone B, Sukhawaha S, Leejongpermpoon J. Criterion-Related Validity of the 9 Questions Depression Rating Scale revised for Thai Central Dialect. J Psychiatr Assoc Thail [Internet]. 2018 Dec 26;63(4 SE-Original Articles):323. Available from:

Hu Y, Chen Y, Zheng Y, You C, Tan J, Hu L, et al. Factors related to mental health of inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Brain Behav Immun [Internet]. 2020/07/15. 2020 Oct;89:587–93. Available from:

Varma P, Junge M, Meaklim H, Jackson ML. Younger people are more vulnerable to stress, anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic: A global cross-sectional survey. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry. 2021;109:110236.

Montano RLT, Acebes KML. Covid stress predicts depression, anxiety and stress symptoms of Filipino respondents. Int J Res Bus Soc Sci. 2020;9(4):78–103.

Rehman U, Shahnawaz MG, Khan NH, Kharshiing KD, Khursheed M, Gupta K, et al. Depression, anxiety and stress among Indians in times of Covid-19 lockdown. Community Ment Health J. 2021;57(1):42–8.

Maxwell SE. Sample size and multiple regression analysis. Psychol Methods. 2000;5(4):434.

Foongfaung S, Thangthum W, Phawo P, Natjumnong S. Mental health care of adult cancer survivor in the community. Qual Life Law J. 2020;16(1):1–14.

Pechkul P, Sriwichai P. Stress, Depression and Stress Management Methods of First Year Students of Bachelor of Nursing Program Boromarajonani, College of Nursing, Phayao Province. Thai J Clin Psychol. 2020;51(1):5.

Löwe B, Spitzer RL, Gräfe K, Kroenke K, Quenter A, Zipfel S, et al. Comparative validity of three screening questionnaires for DSM-IV depressive disorders and physicians’ diagnoses. J Affect Disord. 2004;78(2):131–40.